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Chapter 7

Unit Operations in Food Processing

Unit Operations in Food Processing


Material handling Cleaning Separating Size Reduction Pumping (fluid flow) Mixing Heat exchanging

Unit Operations in Food Processing


Concentration Drying Forming Packaging Controlling Overlapping operations Conserving energy New processes

Material handling
Conveying Transportation Trucking Harvesting

Material handling
Sanitary conditions Quality

Losses

Bacterial growth

Cleaning

Raw material

Equipments

Walls

Floors

Separating

Cream separator Clarification Membrane processes

Separating

Membrane processes
Reverse osmosis (RO) Ultrafiltration (UF) Microfiltration (MF)

Size Reduction

Slicing Dicing Cutting Grinding

Pumping (fluid flow)

Two different types of pumps


Centrifugal pump Positive pump

Mixing

The efficiency of mixing depends on


Design of impeller Diameter of impeller Speed Baffles

Heat exchanging

Heating Heat exchanging


Cooling

Heat exchanging

Heat exchanges
Plate heat exchanges Tubular heat exchanges Swept surface heat exchangers

Concentration

Evaporation Reverse osmosis

Drying

Sun or tray drying Spray drying Freeze drying

Forming

Compacting Extrusion Molds Powders and binding agents Heat and pressure

Packaging

Purposes

Shipping Dispensing Improving the usefulness Protection from microbial contamination, dirt, insects, light, moisture, drying, flavor changes, and physical alterations

Controlling

Valves Thermometers Scales Thermostats Others

Unit Operations in Food Processing


Overlapping operations Conserving energy New processes

Summary

Unit operations make up the basics of food processing. These include material handling, cleaning, separating, size reduction, fluid flow, mixing, heat transfer, concentration, drying, forming, packaging, and controlling.

Summary

Most food processing involves a combination or an overlap of these unit operations.

Summary

Where unit operations overlap or are combined, complex controls ensure the proper function of each operation.

Review Questions

Question 1

Why are foods packaged?

Review Questions

Answer 1 Packaging is used for a variety of purpose including shipping, dispensing, improving the usefulness of the product, and protection from microbial contamination, dirt, insects, light, moisture, drying, flavor changes, and physical alterations. Attractive packaging also helps with marketing of the food product.

Review Questions
Question 2 Name the three methods for separating foods.

Review Questions

Answer 2

Cream separator, clarification, and membrane processes.

Review Questions

Question 3

What are the two types of fluid flow pumps?

Review Questions

Answer 3
Centrifugal pump and positive pump.

Review Questions

Question 4

List the four factors affecting the mixing of food products.

Review Questions

Answer 4
Design of impeller, diameter of impeller, speed, and baffles.

Review Questions

Question 5 Why is it important to handle food materials carefully?

Review Questions

Answer 5
To maintain sanitary conditions, minimize losses, maintain quality, and minimize bacterial growth.

Review Questions

Question 6

Explain the three common methods of drying foods.

Review Questions

Answer 6
Sun or tray drying, spray drying, and freeze drying.

Review Questions

Question 7

List three membrane processes for separating food products.

Review Questions

Answer 7
Reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and microfiltration.