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By Alexandro Strauss

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The History of Calcium Properties of Calcium

Uses of Calcium
Obtaining Calcium Atom Diagram Of Calcium Bibliography

The History of Calcium


The Romans used lime, a compound of calcium, by the first century A.D. (For more on lime and its uses, see Uses of Calcium .) They called it calx, the Latin word for lime. Calcium was first isolated and identified as an element in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy. The origin of calciums name is from the Latin words calx and calcis.
Properties of Calcium Back to Table of Contents

Properties of Calcium
Calcium is very reactive. It cant be found pure in nature. Calcium reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). It reacts with oxygen to form calcium oxide (CaO).CaO also reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide. Pure calcium is an alkaline earth metal. It is silvery-white and fairly hard. Calcium is the twentieth element. The most common calcium isotope, Ca-40, has 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 20 electrons. Back Next

Properties of Calcium (II)


Calcium Isotope Half-life

Ca-40 Ca-41 Ca-42 Ca-43 Ca-44 Ca-45 Ca-46 Ca-47 Ca-48 Ca-49

Stable (non-radioactive) 103,000 years Stable Stable Stable 162.7 days Stable 4.5 days Stable 8.7 minutes

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Properties of Calcium (III)


Calcium is a solid at 25 degrees Celsius (room temperature). Calcium is metallic and burns with a yellow-red flame. Calcium has an average atomic mass of 40.078 amu (atomic mass units.) Calcium melts at 839C (1112.5K, 1542.2 F.)
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Properties of Calcium (IV)


Calciums boiling point is 1484C (1757.5K, 2703.2F.) Calciums density at 20C is 1.55 grams per cubic centimeter. Calcium has a cubic crystal structure. Calcium is most commonly found as limestone, gypsum, or fluorite. Calciums abbreviation on the Periodic Table is Ca. Uses of Calcium Table of Contents

Uses of Calcium
Pure calcium has limited commercial use. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, limestone) is an antacid (think Tums.) Mortar is made by mixing slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) with sand and water. Most concretes today are based on Portland cement. The cement is made from limestone, sand, clay and gypsum. Gypsum is otherwise known as calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO2H2O). It is very important for building. Next

More Uses of Calcium


Calcium is an important nutrient for a wide range of human organisms, including humans. Many marine animals have shells of calcium. Marble is a metamorphosed form of limestone and is composed of calcium carbonate. Lime (calcium oxide), made from heating limestone, is an extremely important industrial chemical. Calcium chloride (CaCl2), can absorb water easily, even from the air. Back Next

Obtaining Calcium
Calcium is the fifth most common element in the earths crust, and makes up 3.5% of it. Water supplies contain dissolved calcium in the form of ions (Ca2+). Calcium is also in a broad variety of life and is a vital nutrient to humans. *The above facts are only to give you a rough idea of where calcium can be obtained from.
Obtaining Calcium (for real this time)

Obtaining Calcium(For Real This Time)


To make pure calcium, you can heat calcium oxide with aluminum OR you can make it by the electrolysis of molten calcium chloride. You can obtain calcium from gypsum, limestone, and marble. Limestone and marble are found in the earths crust, and you can see conical pillars of limestone filling caves all over the world. Gypsum is formed by the evaporation of seawater. It is usually found lying in thick beds (of gypsum, of course.) Atom Drawing of Calcium Table of Contents

The Atom Diagram

20 p 20 n

Bibliography

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