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Teaching-Learning Interaction

Prepared by Olive Santelices Principles of Teaching

Variables in Teaching Learning Interaction



Dynamics of Interaction



When & Where

The choice of particular teaching

strategies is dependent on the

following factors:
a.) objective and aim of the lesson

b.) nature of subject matter

c.) nature of learners d.) school equipment and facilities e.) the teacher

Teaching Strategies
1. Motivation It should arouse students interest. This is the initial period where the learners problems and expressed purposes are spontaneously manifested. 2. Individual Differences Effective teaching recognizes individual differences and provides appropriate remedial measures to disparity, intellectual, social, physical, economic, aesthetic and moral development.

3. Encouragement Good teaching is characterized by everyday assistance to the students in evaluating their performance. The teacher should indicate where the progress of every student is being made. Praise, when earned, makes the student aware and feel his success.

4. Independence The learners gradual independence from adults and their increasing sense of responsibility are positive indicators of good teaching. The degree of independence gained in a given period should eventually measure up with the level of maturity of the student. 5. Remedial teaching Good teaching is both diagnostic and remedial in many subjects. There are various standardized achievement and diagnostics tests to help teachers identify specific errors and weaknesses of students. 6. Democratic environment Students learn the meaning of democracy by practicing and living it. The students should be aware of their rights and privileges they learn in the classroom.

7. Integration Building upon previous knowledge and experience required, new learning experiences will undoubtedly contribute to an integration of what has been completed into the new learning experiences.

8. Lesson planning Learning units, lessons, and activities for the day and even house-keeping must be well-planned. Daily activity should be thoughtfully planned indicating the detailed procedure ad the time frame for each topic.

Strategies and Techniques in Teaching to Obtain Optimum Results

1. Lecture Strategy 2. Discussion 3. Question-and-answer (Socratic Method)

4. Lecture-Demonstration
5. Problem Strategy 6. Project Method 7. Laboratory

8. Field Trip
9. Group or Team Teaching 10. Drill Strategy or Practice

Basic Essential Component of the Learning Material

1. Syllabus 2. Instructional Objective and Teacher Competency 3. Instructional Material

4. Learning Activities
5. Individualized Teaching Material

Hilda Tabas Three Teaching Strategy

1. Concept Formation This stage involves identifying and enumerating of the data that are relevant to problem; grouping items according to some bases of similarity and developing categories and labels for the groups.
2. Interpretation of Data This stage lead students to identify critical aspects of data, explore relationships and make inferences such as implications and extrapolating. 3. Application of Principles This stage requires students to predict consequences, explain unfamiliar data or hypothesize and verify the predictions.

Information Literacy Approach

1. Prospecting. The first component of information literacy approach involves the discovery of relevant information. This prospecting requires navigation skills as well as the ability to sort, shift and select pertinent and reliable data. 2. Interpreting. It is important that the learner must be able to translate data and information into knowledge, insight and understanding.

3. Creating new ideas. True information literacy approach includes the development of new insights and ideas. One cannot be satisfied with rehashing the ideas of others and expect to see fresh knowledge.

The following characteristics are manifestations of information literacy approach

1. Invention 2. Fluency 3. Support 4. Selection 5. Questioning 6. Planning 7. Interpretation

8. Deep thinking
9. Commitment

Teaching Strategies in Laboratory

1. Manipulation of Concrete Objects. Students may not be able to understand and use scientific concepts and principles without hands-on experience that is opportunities to manipulate actual objects and materials. 2. Active Participation. If students are to learn the processes of inquiry, that is observing the real phenomena, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, they must actively practice performing these processes.

3. Scientific Competencies. Participating in a laboratory exercise gives students an appreciation of the method of science and promotes problem-solving and other analytic competencies that can be generalized and applies to other areas.
4. Motivation. Students enjoy goal-oriented activities and practical work where they can see the relevance of abstract concepts and principles and consequently become interested in sciences and are motivated to learn more discipline.

Checklists of Laboratory Activities and Tasks Dimension Analysis

Identify and define problems Formulate Hypothesis

Predict outcomes
Design observation and measurement procedures Design experiments Carry out observations, measurements and experiments Record results Transform results to a standard format Explain results Make inferences and draw conclusions Formulate generalizations and models

Define Limitations

Team Teaching
This is an instructional organization in which two or more teachers equipped adequately with knowledge and information in specialization are given the responsibility of working together. All teachers in the team are responsible for all or a significant part of the instruction of the same group of students.

Reflective Teaching Strategies

Scientific Method of Inquiry 1. Forming and refining a question by students with the answer. 2. Collecting instances and observing facts 3. Putting facts or instances into a class and making generalization

4. Making intelligence guess (hypotheses)

5. Testing to see which hypotheses is correct 6. Using new information as basis for further reasoning

Key Dimensions of Reflective Teaching

Teaching experience Collecting data on teaching through written accounts, recording and observation Review of data Follow-up reflection and response

Self Critique of a Lesson

Audio record or video records a lesson. Review the tape to identify to what extent your beliefs and principles are reflected in the lesson

Journal Writing
Groups of teachers write regularly about issue they encounter in their teaching At the end of each entry, they pose questions

Others read and comment on the questions

Shared Lesson Planning

Teachers plan a lesson around the same content They compare and discuss lesson plants. They teach the lesson and compare lessons

Peer Observation
Two teachers work together Teacher A teaches, Teacher B observes

During the last 5 minutes of the lesson, 3 information sets are collected; from the teacher, the observer and students

Case Study
A description of a problem a teacher encounters and how he or she responds to it, can include comments by other teacher.

The Teaching Portfolio

A collection of documents that provide a description/overview of how a teacher conducts his/her teaching. Example of possible contents: Sample lesson plans Case studies Video/audio recording Classroom materials Student evaluations Peer observation Reflective essay

Guided Discovery
This strategy requires the examination of the cognitive structure of the concepts to be taught and creates a series of experiences for students to explore and discover the concepts themselves (Simon, 1988)

Other Teaching Strategies

Viewing-listening It involves the uses of instructional media that include materials for reading and study by the students individually Inquiry Training It requires students to develop sills in search for and processing data and analyzing them critically. This method gives more freedom and direction to students activity. Practice Drill It involves repeated performance of a learning act until a desired level of skill proficiency is achieved Role-playing It provides a type of experience that enables students to explore human relations problems, including feelings, values, attitudes and problem solving strategies.

Mastery Learning this strategy combines classroom instruction for a group with a individualized instruction. It is judged based on the students performance level which is predetermined and which will be the sole criterion for evaluating mastery of the topic. Individual Instruction Approach it is always assumed that the traditional approach to education is that whatever a good school curriculum has been developed, it will adequately serve the needs of all the students in the school.

Individual Differences Among Students

The human differences that make each individual distinct from others is obvious. The students we teach differ in many aspects; e.g., intelligence, needs, physical appearance and their experiences. Students learn at different rates of speed. By the same token, students are motivated differently in their desire to learn.
Learning is unique to every individual alone and is determined by a combination of personal attribute.

Ways of Treating Individual Differences in School

Understanding the principle of human differences and how learning is affected by these variables is important.

Individualized Instruction is a curricular program which is suited to the peculiar interests, needs and abilities of each learner. It is a program of instruction that makes certain provision for the multiplicity of differences among students.

Components of Individual Instruction

Pre-assessment The determination of the prerequisite skills or understanding necessary for new learnings to be introduced. Multiple-learning Activities Provides different types of learning experiments for students to utilize reinforcement as a tool foe effective learning. Choice of Learning Activities Students should be given an opportunity to chooe the learning activities which have been found to be most effective for his improvement. Self-pacing Some students learn more slowly or quickly than others.

Self-selection of Subject Matter. It is educationally sound to teach students how to learn, make wise decisions and learn the importance principles and generalizations of certain concepts. Self and Peer-group Evaluation. Consideration should be given to provide an opportunity for students to have a choice in the selection of the most interesting method. Creating Ones Own Learning Activities. Students are given some choices in the learning activities that are most suited to their own unique styles.