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OSI Physical Layer Components

Digital and Data Communications

Data Communication Link


DTE DCE
Transmission Medium

DCE

DTE

RS -232C

RS -232C

UNITS of COMMUNICATION LINK

UART Transmitter side needs 8 data bus lines for a 8-bit parallel data to be converted into a serial data stream. Idle line one/marking state Some are onboard Example ACIA by Motorola

Options Found in UARTs

Character Type Option for an 8-bit bus


No. of Stop bits required Use of parity type Use of diff. data rates

ACIA

Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter by Motorola

MC6850 Pin Assignment

CPU Pin

Data Bus (D0-D7) Control Bus (R/W, E, CS) Address (RS, CS) Other: IRQ Data (Rx, Tx) Control (RTX, CTS, DCD) Baud Clock (Rx CLK, Tx CLK)

EIA-232 Pin

Definition of ACIA Register Contents

ACIA Control Register (8-bit)


7 RX IR 6 RTS 5 TX IR 4 WORD SIZE 3 2 STOP & PARITY 1 0 COUNTER DIVIDE

ACIA Control Register (8-bit)

UART Receiver
Use of Divide ratio In half of the bit period where a start bit can be verified Use of shift register Clock Skew

UART Status Register


7 IRQ 6 5 4 FE 3 2 1 0

PE OVRN

CTS DCD TDRE RDRF

Checking UART Performance


Use of Status Register Use of TDRE From buffer register to the shift-register Use of RDRF From shift-register to the buffer register Use of OVRN failure to read the data from the buffer register

Checking UART Performance


Use of Parity Error Use of Framing Error Use of IRQ 2 conditions when IR functions at the Control register

TDRE or RDRF is high a received error has occurred

RS-232C Specifications

Most common by EIA


Uses a D-type 25 pin connector uses voltage levels of +3 to +25 V (SPACE, data 0, on, green) and -3 to -25 V (MARK, data 1, off, red)

RS-232C Specifications

Cable impedance

330 min Tx 7000 max - Rx

Line Capacitance -2500 pf 50 pf/ foot limited to 100kb/s Ideal for short distance less than 50ft

RS-232C

Since the link only uses about 7 wires, DB-9 connectors are frequently used now for serial links,

Handshaking Lines

DTE uses a signal called RTS on pin 4, while DCE uses a signal called CTS on pin 5. Data is transmitted from DTE to DCE on pin 2, and from DCE to DTE on pin 3.

NULL Modem

RS-449

Uses D-type connectors


37-pin 9-pin

2 Mbps transfer rate Max length -200 feet w/ loop-back feature

RS-422

balanced electrical interface implemented using a D-type connector with 37 pins RS-449 specifications logic 1 (Mark) is represented by the A output being more negative than the B output.

logic 0 (Space) is represented by the A output being more positive than the B output.

RS-423

unbalanced electrical interface implemented using a D-type connector with 37 pins RS-449 specifications

low speed communications generally operate at +/- 6 VDC and are compatible with RS-232 devices

RS-423

very sensitive, capable of detecting Mark/Space states at +/- 0.4 VDC has separate Signal Grounds for transmitters and receivers A binary one (Mark) is represented by a Negative voltage level and a binary zero (Space) is represented by a Positive voltage level.

Data Communication Equipment


Signal converter Ex.

MODEM

DTE

DCE
Modulator

DCE
Demodulator

DTE

FSK Modem

i.e. CCITT V.21 for 300 baud modems: Originating Sending Modem Modem 1270 Hz 1 2225 Hz 1070 Hz 0 2025 Hz loss of amplitude will not cause errors in transmission

Limitations of FSK modems


Limited to the telephone BW (300-3kHz) Limited data rates

PSK Modem

a modulation technique to vary the phase of the sine wave (or carrier wave) to transmit ones and zeroes A different phase shift, 0 to 360 degrees, is used to transmit one or more bits

Balanced Modulator
Permits the varying the phase of the fc Logic 1 - 0 phase Logic 0 180 shift Basic Components: Transformers Semiconductor device

DPSK

Is an alternative form of PSK wherein the binary input info. is contained in the difference between two successive signaling elements rather than the absolute phase

Q-

signal phase

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

1 0 0 1

0 180 180 0

DPSK Modulator circuit


Q- Q M1 M2 LS
360 or 0 0 sin180 cos180 0
0 1 sin80 cos180 180 180

1 0 sin180 cos0 1 1 sin0 cos0

360 or 0

N-Nary PSK Modems


Where:

M= P = 360/M C = BW(log2M) = BW x n S= D/n Uses bit-splitter shift registers

2n

M- no. of symbols n no. of bits per symbol

QPSK

QPSK Modulator circuit


B A M1 M2 LS
0 0 -sin180 -cos270 225
0 1 sin0 -cos90 315

1 0 -sin180 cos270 135 1 1 sin0 cos90 45

QAM

Both Phase and Amplitude are varied Higher data rates over telephone BW

Ex. 9600 baud/(4 bits/symbols) = 2400 Hz sps

PSK Demodulators

Uses preamble before the data is received


for clock recovery using a bit delay and XOR The same ckt. w/ the Modulator but having a different signal converter

DAC modulator & ADC-demodulator

V.34 Modems

ITU standard 33 Kbps Uses QAM at 28.8 Kbps Suitable for dial-up and leased lines

V.90 Modems

ITU standard 64 Kbps Uses PCM at 56 Kbps Suitable for dial-up and leased lines