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Students Scientific Research Society (SSRS) studies who are interested 1-in doing research& advancement 2- the students

have the opportunity to get a deeper insight into the principles and methods of research, 3 -to participate actively in research activities and to realize their own ideas and present results at the students and other meetings, 4- satisfying thus their needs and interests that are not presented in the course of regular studies. knowledge in the areas of their own interest.

EXPERTISE OF THAT WELL BE AQUIRED BY THE (SSRS) GROUP Breeding and treatment of laboratory animals including various surgical techniques, as well as different ways of administering/applying drugs and biologically active substances. Cell cultures and tissues: preparation and culturing of different types of cells How to use top quality electron microscopy instruments., both scanning and transmission electron microscope as well as atomic force microscope AFM How to use different Scientific Methodology

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH (SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY)

WHAT IS RESEARCH?
A voyage of discovery; A journey; An attitude ;An experience; A careful critical enquiry in seeking facts for principles. A It requires a clear goal It follows a specific course of action It is realistic in its assumptions It is performed by qualified personal

WHAT IS RESEARCH? research is an unusually stubborn (insistent) and persisting effort to think straight which involves the gathering and the intelligent use of relevant data
H. M. Hamlin, What is Research? American Vocational Journal, September 1966.

A pursuit for an answer driven by a specific question or idea

It requires a clear goal


It follows a specific course of action

It is realistic in its assumptions


It is performed by qualified personal

Why scientific research?


Advances of knowledge; fulfill curiosity

Advances of civilization; improve life quality


Financial reward?

Fame?
Hard work with little reward sometime;

scientific research is not for everyone.

Research is not Just information gathering Rearranging of facts Good Research is based on several pillars: Vision Strategy

The very first few steps What is (are) the hypothesis or

hypotheses to be proved or disproved?


Why is this research?

What are the objectives?


How to do it?

RESEARCH

The priority of Research should be directed to solving problems of society rather than publishing.

SELECTING A RESEARCH PROBLEM

Selecting a research problem and defining it is perhaps the most difficult part of doing scientific research. For some of us, they come easy. For others, not so easy. Where do research problems come from? Personal experience/observation of the world.?

There are no rules which limit what is a valid topic for research.

THERE ARE MANY SORTS OF QUESTIONS THAT RESEARCH CAN ADDRESS.


l- A etiology: what caused this illness? 2- Diagnosis: what does this test result mean in this patient? 3-Prognosis: what is likely to happen to this patient? 4-Harm: is having been exposed to this substance likely to do harm, and, if so, what? 5- Effectiveness: is this treatment likely to help patients with this illness?

6- Qualitative: what are the outcomes that are most important to


patients with this condition?

THE IDEA
One can come up with good ideas about clinical research based on gaps in existing knowledge
Has question been asked before?
If not, why? If so, how does my question or design add to the existing literature?

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD


Hypothesis: groundwork, foundation; an unproven theory.

FORMULATING HYPOTHESES

An hypothesis is an explicit (clear) statement by the researcher of how phenomena of interest are related to one another. Characteristics of a good hypothesis It is an empirical (realistic )statement. It is reasonable. It is specific. It is testable.

EARLY STEPS IN CLINICAL RESEARCH


The idea What topic interests you

The hypothes is the possible answer you will try to prove or disprove.
hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work. Most of the time a hypothesis is written like this: "If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen." independent variable++++=== dependent variable

If I open the faucet [faucet opening size is the independent variable], then it will increase the flow of water [flow of water is the dependent variable]. "Raising the temperature of a cup of water [temperature is the independent variable] will increase the amount of sugar that dissolves [the amount of sugar is the dependent variable]." "If a plant receives fertilizer [having fertilizer is the independent variable], then it will grow to be bigger than a plant that does not receive fertilizer [plant size is the dependent variable]."

. If plant leaf color change is related to temperature , then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color. Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer. If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light , then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer.

FINDING THE RIGHT TARGET IS NOT EASY


PARKINSONS DISEASE EXAMPLE:

Parkinson's disease:
a disease which causes deterioration of the central nervous system over a period of time. This disease often impairs the patients movement, speech, and other functions.

Ways of Knowing

DISSECTING THE DIMENSIONS OF RESEARCH


:

topic: technology: develop new vs use existing methods scope: study a single case vs a sample methodology: qualitative vs quantitative

TWO APPROACHES TO RESEARCH


Quantitative (measurable) Qualitative

GOALS
Quantitative Qualitative

Test theory
Establish facts Show relationships Statistically describe

Understand theory
Develop understanding Describe multiple realities

SAMPLE

Quantitative Large

Qualitative Small

Representative
Random Selection Control Groups

Nonrepresentative
Purposeful

METHODS

Quantitative Experiments

Qualitative Observation

WHICH APPROACH IS BEST?


The problem you are studying determines which approach to take. One is not better than the other. However, some researchers tend to look down their nose at the qualitative researcher!

WHICH WOULD YOU SELECT?


.
Decide whether to approach this problem quantitatively or qualitatively

MIXED METHODS

Some researchers used both qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study. This is known as a mixed method approach.

THE END
Dont be afraid of research. It can actually be fun!

Thank you
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