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Family planning

Family planning
is the planning of when to have children, and the use of birth control and other techniques to implement such plans Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control, however, it often includes a wide variety of methods, and practices that are not birth control.

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".

Kinds of Family Planning

Natural Birth Control Chemical Methods Barrier Methods (Mechanical Method) Surgical Methods

Natural family planning

comprises the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church for both achieving and avoiding pregnancy. In accordance with the Church's teachings regarding sexual behavior in keeping with its philosophy of the dignity of the human person, NFP excludes the use of other methods of birth control, which it refers to as "artificial contraception."

Kinds of natural family method

It simply means refraining from sex during the fertile days of the woman. This requires knowledge and awareness of a woman's fertility process. Couples who do not want to have a baby, and want to avoid taking artificial contraceptives, should keep away from sexual intercourse during ovulation and after it. The fertile days can be determined by the following methods.

Calendar method:
This method requires you to be aware of your menstrual cycle. The day one of your period is the first day of the cycle. Counting from day 1, mark day 8 in your calendar and move forward to day 19. The days from day 8 to day 19 are the most fertile days, hence sexual activities during these days should be completely avoided. All the other days pose less risk of conceiving.

Basal body temperature:

Women who have irregular periods can benefit from this method. It requires a basal thermometer that can record even a slight change in the temperature. After your periods end, measure your body temperature orally every morning, at the same time, and record it. You will notice that the temperatures recorded each day are pretty consistent until you start ovulating. The day you ovulate, there will be a sudden increase in the temperature indicating high fertile period. You should abstain from intercourse till the temperature drops down to your normal body temperature as before ovulation.


Popularly known as the withdrawal or pull out method, this is another way of practicing birth control. During sexual intercourse if the man pulls out his penis just before ejaculating, he can prevent any sperm from entering the woman's vagina. However, this is not a foolproof method, as the fluid which is secreted before ejaculation also contains sperms, and are sufficient to fertilize an ovum. Effectiveness %: 75-80%

Mechanical Methods of Family Planning

Mechanical methods of birth control, also known as barrier methods, are among the most common forms of contraception. Some of them, like condoms, are also the only methods that also reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. All mechanical methods of birth control rely on preventing sperm and egg from meeting.

Kinds of mechanical method

Traditional Condoms

When used correctly, traditional condoms are 85 percent to 98 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. They must be used consistently and correctly to achieve such efficacy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in addition to contraception, condoms are also capable of greatly reducing the risk of STDs and HIV. They are less effective against STDs that can be spread through skin-to-skin contact such as genital herpes and HPV, but they still reduce the risk of these infection compared to unprotected sex.

Female Condoms
Female condoms are designed to be inserted inside the vagina. They can reduce the risk of pregnancy by 79 percent to 95 percent and, per the CDC, "may also prevent STDs." They are usually packaged with a small amount of lubricant to aid in insertion, and they can be inserted up to eight hours before sex.

Diaphragm/Cervical Cap

Like the female condom, cervical caps or diaphragms are intended to be inserted inside the vagina. In this case, they fit over the cervix --- the opening to the uterus --and block sperm. They must be worn inside the vagina for up to eight hours after sex. Combining them with spermicide can improve effectiveness. Their efficacy rate is 84 percent to 94 percent at preventing pregnancy with no STD protection.

are chemicals designed to kill sperm and prevent pregnancy. They are placed directly into the vagina, and they come in gels, dissolving film, expanding foam and tablet forms. They should be inserted no more than an hour before sex and not removed less than eight hours after sex. Spermicides can be combined with other barrier methods to increase their effectiveness.

Chemical methods of family planning include birth control pills, shots, such as Depo Provera, and the patch, which releases hormones into the female body.

Kinds of chemical method

What it is: Twenty-one prescription tablets containing a combination of estrogen and progestinor, less frequently, progestin alonealong with seven or so hormone-free placebo pills that help you stay on your schedule.

Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone) is a form of progesterone, a female hormone that prevents ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary). This medication also causes changes in your cervical mucus and uterine lining, making it harder for sperm to reach the uterus and harder for a fertilized egg to attach to the uterus.

Ortho Evra
Ortho Evra is a contraceptive skin patch containing a combination of female hormones (estrogen and progestin), that prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary). This medicine also causes changes in your cervical mucus and uterine lining, making it harder for sperm to reach the uterus and harder for a fertilized egg to attach to the uterus.

Surgical / Permanent Methods are discussed. Learn about vasectomies and tubal sterilization (ligation). Definitions, pros and cons, effectiveness, STD protection, and cost will all be presented.

Kinds of surgical method

is a surgical procedure where a small incision is made in the upper part of the mans scrotum. The no scalpel vasectomy is a slight variation where the scrotal sac is punctured instead of requiring an incision. Regardles of which way the surgeon gets in, the two tubes (vas deferens) that carry sperm into the semen are cut apart and then tied off or cauterized (burned or seared). The incision is closed with stitches. Once completed, a vasectomy procedure prevents the release of sperm when a man ejaculates.


Tubal ligation
Tubal ligation (also known as having one's tubes tied) is a permanent form of female sterilization. It can be a surgical or non-surgical procedure that closes off the fallopian tubes. Learn about tubal ligation procedures, what to expect, risks, and costs. Discussion about tubal reversal - if a woman regrets this decision. Tips on making the decision to have your tubes tied. Myths also provided.