SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Copyright P. Kundur
This material should not be used without the author's consent
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Synchronous Machines
1. Physical Description
2. Mathematical Model
3. Park's "dqo" transportation
4. Steadystate Analysis
phasor representation in dq coordinates
link with network equations
5. Definition of "rotor angle"
6. Representation of Synchronous Machines in
Stability Studies
neglect of stator transients
magnetic saturation
7. Simplified Models
8. Synchronous Machine Parameters
9. Reactive Capability Limits
Outline
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Physical Description of a
Synchronous Machine
Consists of two sets of windings:
3 phase armature winding on the stator
distributed with centres 120 apart in space
field winding on the rotor supplied by DC
Two basic rotor structures used:
salient or projecting pole structure for hydraulic
units (low speed)
round rotor structure for thermal units (high
speed)
Salient poles have concentrated field windings;
usually also carry damper windings on the pole
face.
Round rotors have solid steel rotors with
distributed windings
Nearly sinusoidal space distribution of flux wave
shape obtained by:
distributing stator windings and field windings in
many slots (round rotor);
shaping pole faces (salient pole)
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Rotors of Steam Turbine Generators
Traditionally, North American manufacturers normally
did not provide special damper windings
solid steel rotors offer paths for eddy currents,
which have effects equivalent to that of
amortisseur currents
European manufacturers tended to provide for
additional damping effects and negativesequence
current capability
wedges in the slots of field windings
interconnected to form a damper case, or
separate copper rods provided underneath the
wedges
Figure 3.3: Solid round rotor construction
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Rotors of Hydraulic Units
Normally have damper windings or amortisseurs
nonmagnetic material (usually copper) rods
embedded in pole face
connected to end rings to form shortcircuited
windings
Damper windings may be either continuous or non
continuous
Space harmonics of the armature mmf contribute to
surface eddy current
therefore, pole faces are usually laminated
Figure 3.2: Salient pole rotor construction
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Balanced Steady State Operation
Net mmf wave due to the three phase stator
windings:
travels at synchronous speed
appears stationary with respect to the rotor; and
has a sinusoidal space distribution
mmf wave due to one phase:
Figure 3.7: Spatial mmf wave of phase a
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Balanced Steady State Operation
The mmf wave due to the three phases are:

.

\

t
+ =

.

\

t
=
=
3
2
cos Ki MMF
3
2
cos Ki MMF
cos Ki MMF
c c
b b
a a
( )

.

\
 t
+ e =

.

\
 t
e =
e =
3
2
t cos l i
3
2
t cos I i
t cos I i
s m a
s m b
s m a
( ) t cos KI
2
3
MMF MMF MMF MMF
s m
c b a total
e =
+ + =
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Balanced Steady State Operation
Magnitude of stator mmf wave and its relative
angular position with respect to rotor mmf wave
depend on machine output
for generator action, rotor field leads stator field
due to forward torque of prime mover;
for motor action rotor field lags stator field due
to retarding torque of shaft load
Figure 3.8: Stator and rotor mmf wave shapes
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Transient Operation
Stator and rotor fields may:
vary in magnitude with respect to time
have different speed
Currents flow not only in the field and stator
windings, but also in:
damper windings (if present); and
solid rotor surface and slot walls of round rotor
machines
Figure 3.4: Current paths in a round rotor
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Direct and Quadrature Axes
The rotor has two axes of symmetry
For the purpose of describing synchronous
machine characteristics, two axes are defined:
the direct (d) axis, centered magnetically in the
centre of the north pole
The quadrature (q) axis, 90 electrical degrees
ahead of the daxis
Figure 3.1: Schematic diagram of a 3phase synchronous
machine
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Mathematical Descriptions of a
Synchronous Machine
For purposes of analysis, the induced currents in
the solid rotor and/or damper windings may be
assumed to flow in two sets of closed circuits
one set whose flux is in line with the daxis; and
the other set whose flux is along the qaxis
The following figure shows the circuits involved
Figure 3.9: Stator and rotor circuits
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Review of Magnetic Circuit Equations
(Single Excited Circuit)
Consider the elementary circuit of Figure 3.10
The inductance, by definition, is equal to flux linkage
per unit current
where
P = permeance of magnetic path
> = flux = (mmf) P = NiP
Li
ri
dt
d
e
dt
d
e
1
i
= +
+
+
=
+
=
P N
i
N L
2
=

=
Figure 3.10: Single excited magnetic circuit
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Review of Magnetic Circuit Equations
(Coupled Circuits)
Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.11
with L
11
= self inductance of winding 1
L
22
= self inductance of winding 2
L
21
= mutual inductance between winding 1 and 2
2 22 1 21 2
2 21 1 11 1
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
1
i L i L
i L i L
i r
dt
d
e
i r
dt
d
e
+ = +
+ = +
+
+
=
+
+
=
Figure 3.11: Magnetically coupled circuit
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Basic Equations of a Synchronous Machine
The equations are complicated by the fact that the
inductances are functions of rotor position and
hence vary with time
The self and mutual inductances of stator circuits
vary with rotor position since the permeance to flux
paths vary
The mutual inductances between stator and rotor
circuits vary due to relative motion between the
windings

.

\
 t
+ u =

.

\
 t
u + = =
u + =
+ =
3
2 cos L L
3
2
2 cos L L I I
2 cos L L
I L I
2 ab 0 ab
2 ab 0 ab ba ab
2 aa 0 aa
gaa al aa
u =

.

\
 t
+ u =
u =
u =
sin L
2
cos L I
cos L I
cos L I
akq akq akq
akd akd
afd afd
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Basic Equations of a Synchronous Machine
Dynamics of a synchronous machine is given by the
equations of the coupled stator and rotor circuits
Stator voltage and flux linkage equations for phase a
(similar equations apply to phase b and phase c)
Rotor circuit voltage and flux linkage equations
kq akq kd akd fd afd c ac b ab a aa a
a a a a a
a
a
i l i l i l i l i l i l
i R p i R
dt
d
e
+ + + = +
+ =
+
=
kq kq kq
kd kd kd
fd fd fd fd
i R p 0
i R p 0
i R p e
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
(

.

\
 t
+ u +

.

\
 t
u + u +
=
(

.

\
 t
+ u +

.

\
 t
u + u
+ =
(

.

\
 t
+ u +

.

\
 t
u + u
+ =
3
2
sin i
3
2
sin i sin i L
i L
3
2
cos i
3
2
cos i cos i L
i L i L
3
2
cos i
3
2
cos i cos i L
i L i L
c b a akq
kq kkd kq
c b a afd
kd kkd fd fkd kd
c b a afd
kd fkd fd ffd fd
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The dqo Transformation
The dqo transformation, also called Park's
transformation, transforms stator phase quantities from
the stationary abc reference frame to the dqo reference
frame which rotates with the rotor
The above transformation also applies to stator flux
linkages and voltages
With the stator quantities expressed in the dqo
reference frame
all inductances are independent of rotor position
(except for the effects of magnetic saturation)
under balanced steady state operation, the stator
quantities appear as dc quantities
during electromechanical transient conditions,
stator quantities vary slowly with frequencies in
the range of 1.0 to 3.0 Hz
The above simplify computation and analysis of results.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

.

\
 t
+ u

.

\
 t
u u

.

\
 t
+ u

.

\
 t
u u
=
(
(
c
b
a
0
q
d
i
i
i
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
sin
3
2
sin sin
3
2
cos
3
2
cos cos
3
2
i
i
i
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Physical Interpretation of dqo
Transformation
The dqo transformation may be viewed as a means
of referring the stator quantities to the rotor side
In effect, the stator circuits are represented by two
fictitious armature windings which rotate at the
same speed as the rotor; such that:
the axis of one winding coincides with the daxis
and that of the other winding with the qaxis
The currents i
d
and i
q
flowing in these circuits
result in the same mmf's on the d and qaxis as
do the actual phase currents
The mmf due to i
d
and i
q
are stationary with respect
to the rotor, and hence:
act on paths of constant permeance, resulting in
constant self inductances (L
d
, L
q
) of stator
windings
maintain fixed orientation with rotor circuits,
resulting in constant mutual inductances
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Per Unit Representation
The per unit system is chosen so as to further
simplify the model
The stator base quantities are chosen equal to the
rated values
The rotor base quantities are chosen so that:
the mutual inductances between different
circuits are reciprocal (e.g. L
afd
= L
fda
)
the mutual inductances between the rotor and
stator circuits in each axis are equal (e.g., L
afd
=
L
akd
)
One of the advantages of having a P.U. system with
reciprocal mutual inductances is that it allows the
use of equivalent circuits to represent the
synchronous machine characteristics
The P.U. system is referred to as the "L
ad
base reciprocal P.U. system"
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P.U. Machine Equations in
dqo reference frame
The equations are written with the following
assumptions and notations:
t is time in radians
p = d/dt
positive direction of stator current is out of the
machine
each axis has 2 rotor circuits
Stator voltage equations
Rotor voltage equations
0 a 0 0
q a r d q q
d a r q d d
i R p e
i R p e
i R p e
=
e + =
e =
q 2 q 2 q 2
q 1 q 1 q 1
d 1 d 1 d 1
fd fd fd fd
i R p 0
i R p 0
i R p 0
i R p e
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
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P.U. Machine Equations in dqo Reference
Frame (cont'd)
Stator flux linkage equations
Rotor flux linkage equations
Airgap torque
( )
( )
0 0 0
2 1
1
i L
i L i L i L L
i L i L i L L
q aq q aq q l aq q
d ad fd ad d l ad d
=
+ + + =
+ + + =
q aq q 2 q 22 q 1 aq q 1
q aq q 2 aq q 1 q 11 q 1
d ad d 1 d 11 fd d 1 f d 1
d ad d 1 d 1 f fd ffd fd
i L L L i L
i L i L i L
i L i L i L
i L i L i L
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
d q q d e
i i T =
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Steady State Analysis Phasor
Representation
For balanced, steady state operation, the stator voltages may
be written as:
with
= angular velocity = 2f
= phase angle of e
a
at t=0
Applying the d,q transformation,
At synchronous speed, the angle is given by = t +
0
with = value of at t = 0
Substituting for in the expressions for e
d
and e
q
,
( )
( )
( ) o + t + e =
o + t e =
o + e =
3 2 t cos E e
3 2 t cos E e
t cos E e
m c
m b
m a
( )
( ) u o + e =
u o + e =
t sin E e
t cos E e
m q
m d
( )
( )
0 m q
0 m d
sin E e
cos E e
u o =
u o =
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Steady State Analysis Phasor
Representation (cont'd)
The components e
d
and e
q
are not a function of t because
rotor speed is the same as the angular frequency
of the stator voltage. Therefore, e
d
and e
q
are constant
under steady state.
In p.u. peak value E
m
is equal to the RMS value of terminal
voltage E
t
. Hence,
The above quantities can be represented as phasors with
daxis as real axis and qaxis as imaginary axis
Denoting
i
, as the angle by which qaxis leads E
( )
( )
0 t q
0 t d
sin E e
cos E e
u o =
u o =
i t q
i t d
cos E e
sin E e
o =
o =
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Steady State Analysis Phasor
Representation (cont'd)
The phasor terminal voltage is given by
in the dq coordinates
in the RI coordinates
This provides the link between d,q components in a
reference frame rotating with the rotor and R, I
components associated with the a.c. circuit theory
Under balanced, steady state conditions, the d,q,o
transformation is equivalent to
the use of phasors for analyzing alternating
quantities, varying sinusoidally with respect to
time
The same transformation with = t applies to both
in the case of machines, = rotor speed
in the case of a.c. circuits, = angular frequency
l R
q d t
jE E
je e E
~
+ =
+ =
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Internal Rotor Angle
Under steady state
Similarly
Under no load, i
d
=i
q
=0. Therefore,
and
Under no load, E
t
has only the qaxis component
and
i
=0. As the machine is loaded,
i
increases.
Therefore,
i
is referred to as the load angle or
internal rotor angle.
It is the angle by which qaxis leads the phasor E
t
a d q q a d q q
a d q d
R i i X R i i L
R i e
= e =
e =
a q fd ad d d
a q d q
R i i X i X
R i e
+ =
e =
fd ad q
d
fd ad d
q q q
i L e
0 e
i L
0 i L
=
=
=
= =
fd ad q d t
i jL je e E
~
= + =
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Electrical Transient Performance
To understand the nature of electrical transients, let
us first consider the RL circuit shown in Figure 3.24
with e = E
m
sin (t+). If switch "S" is closed at t=0,
the current is given by
solving
The first term is the dc component. The presence of
the dc component ensures that the current does not
change instantaneously. The dc component decays
to zero with a time constant of L/R
iR
dt
di
L e + =
( )
( )  o + e + =
t sin
Z
E
Ke i
m
t
L
R
Figure 3.24: RL Circuit
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Short Circuit Currents of a Synchronous
Machine
If a bolted threephase fault is suddenly applied to
a synchronous machine, the three phase currents
are shown in Figure 3.25.
Figure 3.25: Threephase shortcircuit currents
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Short Circuit Currents of a Synchronous
Machine (cont'd)
In general, fault current has two distinct
components:
a) a fundamental frequency component which
decays initially very rapidly (a few cycles) and
then relatively slowly (several seconds) to a
steady state value
b) a dc component which decays exponentially in
several cycles
This is similar to the short circuit current in the case
of the simple RL circuit. However, the amplitude of
the ac component is not constant
internal voltage, which is a function of rotor flux
linkages, is not constant
the initial rapid decay is due to the decay of flux
linking the subtransient circuits (high resistance)
the slowly decaying part of the ac component is
due to the transient circuit (low resistance)
The dc components have different magnitudes in
the three phases
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Elimination of dc Component by
Neglecting Stator Transients
For many classes of problems, considerable
computational simplicity results if the effects of ac
and dc components are treated separately
Consider the stator voltage equations
transformer voltage terms: p
d
, p
q
speed voltage terms:
The transformer voltage terms represent stator
transients:
stator flux linkages (
d
,
q
) cannot change
instantaneously
result in dc offset in stator phasor current
If only fundamental frequency stator currents are of
interest, stator transients (p
d
, p
q
) may be
neglected.
d q
, e e
a q d q q
a d q d d
R i p e
R i p e
e + =
e =
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Short Circuit Currents with Stator
Transients Neglected
The resulting stator phase currents following a
disturbance has the wave shape shown in Figure
3.27
The short circuit has only the ac component whose
amplitude decays
Regions of subtransient, transient and steady state
periods can be readily identified from the wave shape
of phase current
Figure 3.27: Fundamental frequency component of short
circuit armature current
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Synchronous Machine Representation in
System Stability Studies
Stator Transients (p
d
, p
q
) are usually neglected
accounts for only fundamental frequency
components of stator quantities
dc offset either neglected or treated separately
allows the use of steadystate relationships for
representing the transmission network
Another simplifying assumption normally made is
setting in the stator voltage equations
counter balances the effect of neglecting stator
transients so far as the lowfrequency rotor
oscillations are concerned
with this assumption, in per unit airgap power
is equal to airgap torque
(See section 5.1 of book for details)
1 = e
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Equation of Motion (Swing Equation)
The combined inertia of the generator and prime
mover is accelerated by the accelerating torque:
where
T
m
= mechanical torque in NM
T
e
= electromagnetic torque in Nm
J = combined moment of inertia of generator
and turbine, kgm
2
a
m
= angular velocity of the rotor in mech. rad/s
t = time in seconds
e m a
m
T T T
dt
d
J = =
e
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Equation of Motion (cont'd)
The above equation can be normalized in terms of
per unit inertia constant H
where
a
0m
= rated angular velocity of the rotor in
mechanical radians per second
Equation of motion in per unit form is
where
= per unit rotor angular velocity
= per unit mechanical torque
= per unit electromechanical torque
Often inertia constant M = 2H used
base
2
m 0
VA
J
2
1
H
e
=
e m
r
T T
dt
d
H 2 =
e
m
m
r
0
e
e
= e
base
m 0 m
m
VA
T
T
e
=
base
m 0 e
e
VA
T
T
e
=
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Magnetic Saturation
Basic equations of synchronous machines
developed so far ignored effects of saturation
analysis simple and manageable
rigorous treat a futile exercise
Practical approach must be based on semi
heuristic reasoning and judiciously chosen
approximations
consideration to simplicity, data availability,
and accuracy of results
Magnetic circuit data essential to treatment of
saturation given by the opencircuit characteristic
(OCC)
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Assumptions Normally Made in the
Representation of Saturation
Leakage inductances are independent of saturation
Saturation under loaded conditions is the same as
under noload conditions
Leakage fluxes do not contribute to iron saturation
degree of saturation determined by the airgap
flux
For salient pole machines, there is no saturation in
the qaxis
flux is largely in air
For round rotor machines, qaxis saturation
assumed to be given by OCC
reluctance of magnetic path assumed
homogeneous around rotor periphery
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The effects of saturation is represented as
L
adu
and L
aqu
are unsaturated values. The saturation
factors K
sd
and K
sq
identify the degrees of
saturation.
As illustrated in Figure 3.29, the daxis saturation is
given by The OCC.
Referring to Figure 3.29,
For the nonlinear segment of OCC, can be
expressed by a suitable mathematical function:
aqu sq aq
adu sd ad
L K L
L K L
=
=
I
I
+ + +
+
=
+ + = +
at
at
sd
at 0 at
K
( )
TI at sat
B
sat
A
+ +
= + e
I
I
+
(3.182)
(3.183)
(3.186)
(3.187)
(3.189)
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OpenCircuit Characteristic (OCC)
Under no load rated speed conditions
Hence, OCC relating to terminal voltage and field
current gives saturation characteristic of the daxis
fd ad d q t
d q q d
i L e E
0 e i i
= + = =
= = + = =
Figure 3.29: Opencircuit characteristic showing effects of
saturation
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For salient pole machines, since qaxis flux is
largely in air, L
aq
does not vary significantly with
saturation
K
sq
=1 for all loading conditions
For round rotor machines, there is saturation in
both axes
qaxis saturation characteristic not usually
available
the general industry practice is to assume
K
sq
= K
sd
For a more accurate representation, it may be
desirable to better account for qaxis saturation of
round rotor machines
qaxis saturates appreciably more than the d
axis, due to the presence of rotor teeth in the
magnetic path
Figure 3.32 shows the errors introduced by
assuming qaxis saturation to be same as that of
daxis, based on actual measurements on a 500
MW unit at Lambton GS in Ontario
Figure shows differences between measured
and computed values of rotor angle and field
current
the error in rotor angle is as high as 10%, being
higher in the underexcited region
the error in the field current is as high as 4%,
being greater in the overexcited region
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The qaxis saturation characteristic is not readily
available
It can, however, be fairly easily determined from
steadystate measurements of field current and
rotor angle at different values of terminal
voltage, active and reactive power output
Such measurements also provide daxis
saturation characteristics under load
Figure 3.33 shows the d and qaxis saturation
characteristics derived from steadystate
measurements on the 500 MW Lambton unit
Figure 3.33: Lambton saturation curves derived from
steadystate field current and rotor angle measurements
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Example 3.3
Considers the 555 MVA unit at Lambton GS and
examines
the effect of representing qaxis saturation
characteristic distinct from that of daxis
the effect of reactive power output on rotor angle
Table E3.1 shows results with qaxis saturation assumed
same as daxis saturation
Table E3.2 shows results with distinct d and qaxis
saturation representation
Table E3.1
P
t
Q
t
E
a
(pu) K
sd
i
(deg) i
fd
(pu)
0 0 1.0 0.889 0 0.678
0.4 0.2 1.033 0.868 25.3 1.016
0.9 0.436 1.076 0.835 39.1 1.565
0.9 0 1.012 0.882 54.6 1.206
0.9 0.2 0.982 0.899 64.6 1.089
Table E3.2
P
t
Q
t
K
sq
K
sd
i
(deg) i
fd
(pu)
0 0 0.667 0.889 0 0.678
0.4 0.2 0.648 0.868 21.0 1.013
0.9 0.436 0.623 0.835 34.6 1.559
0.9 0 0.660 0.882 47.5 1.194
0.9 0.2 0.676 0.899 55.9 1.074
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Simplified Models for Synchronous
Machines
Neglect of Amortisseurs
first order of simplification
data often not readily available
Classical Model (transient performance)
constant field flux linkage
neglect transient saliency (x
'
d
= x
'
q
)
Steadystate Model
constant field current
neglect saliency (x
d
= x
q
= x
s
)
E
d
x'
E
t
E
q
E
t
x
s
E
q
= X
ad
i
fd
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Reactive Capability Limits of Synchronous
Machines
In voltage stability and longterm stability studies,
it is important to consider the reactive capability
limits of synchronous machines
Synchronous generators are rated in terms of
maximum MVA output at a specified voltage and
power factor which can be carried continuously
without overheating
The active power output is limited by the prime
mover capability
The continuous reactive power output capability is
limited by three considerations
armature current limit
field current limit
end region heating limit
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Armature Current Limit
Armature current results in power loss, and the
resulting heat imposes a limit on the output
The per unit complex output power is
where is the power factor angle
In a PQ plane the armature current limit, as shown
in Fig. 5.12, appears as a circle with centre at the
origin and radius equal to the MVA rating
( )  +  = = + = sin j cos I E
I
~
E
~
jQ P S
t t
*
t
t
Fig 5.12: Armature current heating limit
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Field Current Limit
Because of the heating resulting from R
fd
I
2
fd
power
loss, the field current imposes the second limit
The phasor diagram relating E
t
, I
t
and E
q
(with R
a
neglected) is shown in Fig. 5.13
Equating the components along and perpendicular to
the phasor
Therefore
The relationship between P and Q for a given field
current is a circle centered at on the Qaxis and with
as the radius. The effect of the maximum field current
on the capability of the machine is shown in Fig. 5.14
In any balanced design, the thermal limits for the field
and armature intersect at a point (A) which represents
the machine nameplate MVA and power factor rating
t
E
 + = o
 = o
sin l X E cos i X
cos l X sin i X
t s t i fd ad
t s i fd ad
s
2
t
i fd t
s
ad
t t
i fd t
s
ad
t t
X
E
cos i E
X
X
sin l E Q
sin i E
X
X
cos l E P
o =  =
o =  =
1539pk
SM  43
Field Current Limit
Fig. 5.13: Steady state phasor diagram
Fig. 5.14: Field current heating limit
1539pk
SM  44
End Region Heating Limit
The localized heating in the end region of the armature
affects the capability of the machine in the underexcited
condition
The endturn leakage flux, as shown in Fig. 5.15, enters
and leaves in a direction perpendicular (axial) to the
stator lamination. This causes eddy currents in the
laminations resulting in localized heating in the end
region
The high field currents corresponding to the
overexcited condition keep the retaining ring saturated,
so that end leakage flux is small. However, in the
underexcited region the field current is low and the
retaining ring is not saturated; this permits an increase
in armature end leakage flux
Also, in the underexcited condition, the flux produced
by the armature current adds to the flux produced by
the field current. Therefore, the endturn flux enhances
the axial flux in the end region and the resulting heating
effect may severely limit the generator output,
particularly in the case of a round rotor machine
Fig. 5.16 shows the locus of end region heating limit on
a PQ plane
1539pk
SM  45
End Region Heating Limit
Fig. 5.15: Sectional view end region of a generator
Fig. 5.16: End region heating limit
1539pk
SM  46
Reactive Capability Limit of a 400 MVA
Hydrogen Cooled Steam Turbine Generator
Fig. 5.18 shows the reactive capability curves of a 400
MVA hydrogen cooled steam turbine driven generator
at rated armature voltage
the effectiveness of cooling and hence the
allowable machine loading depends on hydrogen
pressure
for each pressure, the segment AB represents the
field heating limit, the segment BC armature heating
limit, and the segment CD the end region heating
limit
Fig. 5.18: Reactive capability curves of a hydrogen cooled
generator at rated voltage
1539pk
SM  47
Fig. 5.17: Effect of reducing the armature voltage on the
generator capability curve
Effect of Changes in Terminal Voltage E
t