Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 31

Introduction to Information

Technology
2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 4:
Computer Software

Prepared by:
Roberta M. Roth, Ph.D.
University of Northern Iowa

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-1
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Chapter Preview
In this chapter, we will study:
Systems Software
Application Software
How software applications are
developed
How software has evolved and where
it’s headed
Software for the enterprise

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-2
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
The Software Crisis
Computer System  New software
applications cannot
be developed fast
Hardware Software enough to:
 Keep up with dynamic
business environment
 Keep pace with rapid
hardware advances
 Lag in software
development limits
IS capabilities

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-3
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
The Software Crisis (continued)
 In addition to new application
development, existing software must
also be maintained (80% IT personnel
effort towards maintenance).
 Increasing complexity leads to the
increased potential for “bugs.”
 Testing and “debugging” software is
expensive and time-consuming.

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-4
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Software Fundamentals
Some basic terms…
Computer programs - sequences of
instructions for the computer
Stored program concept – instructions
written in programs are stored and
executed by CPU when needed
Programming - process of writing (or
coding) programs
Programmers - individuals who perform
programming

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-5
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Software Fundamentals
(continued)
Computer Software  Systems Software
 Instructions that
Systems Application manage the
Software Software hardware
Makes the Does resources
computer somethin  Application
function g
interestin Software
g  Instructions that
perform specific
user tasks

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-6
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
System Software
System software is software that:
Controls and supports the computer
system’s activities
Supports application software by
directing the computer’s basic
functions
Facilitates program development,
testing, and debugging
Is independent of any specific type of
application
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-7
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Systems Software (continued)
Systems Software  System Control
Programs
 Control use of all
System Systems system resources
Control Support (hardware,
Programs Programs
software, data);
operating system
 System Support
Programs
 Specialized
support
capabilities
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-8
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
System Control Programs
Operating System - main system
control program
supervises the overall operation of the
computer
allocates CPU time and main memory
to programs running on the computer
provides an interface between the
user and the hardware

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-9
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Operating System Services
 Process management – manage program(s)
running on processor
 Multitasking or Multiprogramming - managing
two or more tasks, or programs, running on the
computer system at the same time
 Multithreading – type of multitasking; run two or
more tasks from the same application simultaneously
 Timesharing - many users share same CPU, each
using a different input/output terminal
 Multiprocessing – simultaneous processing with
multiple CPUs

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-10
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Operating System Services
(continued)
 Virtual memory - simulates more main
memory than actually exists in the computer
system
 File management and security - managing
the arrangement of, and access to, files held in
secondary storage
 Fault tolerance - system can produce correct
results and continue to operate even in the
presence of faults or errors
 User interface - allows users to have direct
control of visible objects (icons) and actions
that replace complex command syntax
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-11
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Types of Operating Systems
Major Desktop Operating Systems
Microsoft Products: MS-DOS
Windows 95 Windows Windows
98
Windows NTWindows ME
2000Windows XP

Other Products: UNIX Linux


Java Operating System (JavaOS)
IBM O/S 2
Macintosh Operating System

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-12
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Types of Operating Systems
(continued)
Departmental Server Operating
Systems
Support hundreds of concurrent users
UNIX, Linux, Windows 2000, Windows
XP, Novell NetWare
Enterprise Operating Systems
Support thousands of concurrent
users; millions of transactions per day
IBM’s OS/390, IBM’s VM (Virtual
Machine), IBM’s VSE (Virtual Storage
Extended), and IBM’s OS/400
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-13
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
System Support Programs
Support the operations,
management, and users of a
computer system
Examples:
System Utilities
• Perform common tasks: sorting records,
checking disk integrity, creating
directories and subdirectories, restoring
accidentally erased files, locating stored
files, managing memory usage, and
redirecting output.
Introduction to Information Technology, 2 Edition
nd

Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-14


© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
System Support Programs
(continued)
 Examples (continued)
Performance monitors
• monitor job processing
• produce statistical reports on system
resource usage
Security monitors
• monitor the use of a computer system to
protect it and its resources from
unauthorized use, fraud, or destruction

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-15
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Application Software
 Programs performing specific
information processing activities and
user functionality
 Types of Application Software
 Proprietary application software
• Addresses a specific or unique business need for a
company
 Off-the-shelf application software
• Vendor developed programs sold to many
organizations
• May be standard package or may be customizable
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-16
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Application Software (continued)
Personal Application Software - off-the-
shelf application programs supporting general
types of processing
 Spreadsheets  Multimedia
 Data  Communication
management  Speech-
 Word processing
recognition
 Desktop
 Groupware
publishing
 Graphics
 Presentation;
Analysis;
Turban, Rainer & Potter CAD
Introduction to Information Technology, 2 Edition
nd
4-17
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Software Issues
Software Evaluation and Selection
Selection factors
• Size and location of the user base
• System administration tools
• Initial and subsequent costs
• Current and future system capabilities
• Existing computing environment
• In-house technical skills

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-18
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Software Issues (continued)
 Software Licensing
 Copyright - exclusive legal right to
reproduce, publish, and sell the software
 Licenses - permission granted under the law
to engage in an activity otherwise unlawful
 Software Upgrades
 May or may not offer valuable
enhancements
 Risk that revised software may contain bugs
 Upgrading in a large organization is a major
undertaking, so must assess the merits of
the new release
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-19
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Software Issues (continued)

Open Systems
A model of computing products that
work together
Empower designers to choose the best
computer hardware, operating system,
and application software without
compatibility concerns
Open Source Software
Software code offered freely to
developers
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
4-20
Turban, Rainer & Potter
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Programming Languages
Various programming languages
enable people to tell computers
what to do
Foundation for developing
applications

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-21
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
How are Programs Understood by the
Computer?
(The Language Translation Process)

Program written Translator Program written


in programming program
Assembl in machine
language er language (object
(source code) Compiler code)
Interpret
er
Processed
By CPU

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-22
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Programming Languages
 Machine Language (first generation of
programming languages)
 The computer’s ‘native language’
 Composed of binary digits (0s, 1s)
 The only language that computers
understand
 Assembly Language (second generation of
programming languages)
 One-to-one correspondence to machine
language
 Somewhat more user-friendly than machine
language (mnemonic rather than binary
digits)
Assembler – program that translates an
Introduction to Information Technology, 2 Edition
Rainer
nd

Turban, & Potter 4-23


© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Programming Languages
(continued …)
 Procedural Languages (third generation
languages)
 One instruction translates into many
machine language instructions
 Programs describe the computer’s
processing step-by-step
 Closer to natural language; uses common
words rather than abbreviated mnemonics
 Examples: Cobol, C, Fortran, QuickBasic
 Compiler - translates the entire program at
once
 Interpreter - translates and executes one
source program statement at a time
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-24
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Programming Languages
(continued)
 Nonprocedural Language (fourth generation
languages)
 Allows the user to specify the desired result
without having to specify the detailed
procedures needed for achieving the result
 Example – data base query language - SQL
 Can be used by non technical users
 Natural Language Programming
Languages (fifth generation (intelligent)
languages)
 Translates natural languages into a
structured, machine-readable form
 Are extremely complex and experimental
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-25
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Current Programming Languages
Visual Programming Languages
Used within a graphical environment
Example : Visual Basic and Visual C++
Popular to non technical users
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
standard language used in World Wide
Web
contains text, images, and other types
of information such as data files,
audio, video, and executable computer
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-26
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Current Programming Languages
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Improved on web document
functionality
Componentware
Software components that may be
assembled by developer as needed
“Plug and Play” software development

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-27
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Current Programming Languages
(continued)
 Virtual Reality Modeling Language
(VRML)
 a file format for describing three-dimensional
interactive worlds and objects
 can be used with the World Wide Web
 Object-Oriented Programming
Languages (OOP)
 based on objects – packaging data and the
instructions about what to do with that data
together
 Examples: Java, C++
 Unified Modeling Language (UML)- modeling
tool for object-oriented systems
Introduction to Information Technology, 2 Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter
nd
4-28
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Enterprise Software
 Problem faced in many organizations…
 Competitive pressures require change in
organizational procedures, however
 all the different types of software and hardware in use
cause so much complexity that change is difficult
 Solution options
 Software packages with integrated functional modules
(i.e., human resource, operations, marketing, finance,
accounting, etc.)
 Use of middleware to link disparate applications
 Enterprise software that manages all organizational
operations

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-29
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Chapter Summary
 Software can be broadly categorized as
Systems software and Applications software
 Systems software provides an interface
between the hardware and the application
software
 Application software performs specific business
functions
 Programming languages provide the means for
humans to give computers instructions
 Organizations seek enterprise wide software
solutions to provide integrated organizational
systems
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition
Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-30
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons
Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section
117 of the 1976 United Stated Copyright Act without the express written
permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further
information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her
own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no
responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these
programs or from the use of the information herein.

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition


Turban, Rainer & Potter 4-31
© 2003 John Wiley & Sons