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Professional Engineering Ethics :

CORRUPTION
CONTRIBUTE TO SUB-STANDARD ENGINEERING PRACTICES

PRE-INTRODUCTION
GROUP MEMBERS
Khairul Razmin Abdurakman Mohd Loqmanul Hakim Ariffin Mohd Hafiezam Abdullah Amri Muhammad Hanif Mohd Zain Amir Hamzah Shariza Rosli

LECTURER
Ir. Dr. Mohamad Pauzi Abdul Ghani

INTRODUCTION
Corruption is defined as the use of public office for private gain, . or in other words, use of official position, rank or status by an office bearer for his own personal benefit. Corruption is also include of the solicitation, receiving or agreeing to receive, giving, promising or offering gratification as an inducement or reward to a person to do or forbear to do any act, with a corrupt intention. Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with multiple causes and effects, as it takes on various forms and functions in different contexts. Corruption in the construction and engineering industry across the world has taken a high toll including lost lives, financial losses, diverted resources, and destruction of the environment.

ETHICS AND ENGINEERING


Engineering Practice...
Engineering Practice can be defined as a profession, as opposed to an occupation or job. A profession has the following attributes: works requires sophisticated skills, judgement, and exercise of desrection (work is not routine) Membership in the profession requires formal education Special societies (controlled by members of the profession) establish standards for admission into the profession and conduct of its members Significant positive public service results from the practice of the profession

ETHICS AND ENGINEERING


.

Ethics in Engineering
Ethics is the study of the characteristics of morals, and involves the moral choices made by individuals as they interact with other persons. Engineering ethics will be defined as the rules and standards governing the conduct of engineers in their roles as professionals. Codes of ethics have been established by various professional engineering societies, such as the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), etc.

CORRUPTION AND ENGINEERING


Engineering and Construction Industry
Engineering and Construction projects normally have: a large number of participants linked together in a complex contractual structure a very diverse industry, both in the number of different professions and trades which work in the industry, and in the number of different specialist contractors. vary tremendously in content and size, and rates for labour, equipment and materials vary according to market demand.

CORRUPTION AND ENGINEERING


Types Of Corruption.
i) Bribery can be defined as the demanding, receiving, offering or giving of an undue reward by or to any person in order to influence his behaviour.
ii) Extortion form of blackmail. It is the term applied to the process of demanding a bribe where the demander uses some form of physical or financial pressure, and where the person from which the payment is demanded may feel that he has little choice but to comply iii) Fraud A representative of one party may try to deceive a representative of another party. The party using the deception will normally be attempting wrongfully to extract payment or advantage from another party, or to deny another party a due payment or advantage. iv) Bribery and Fraud Bribery normally involves a degree of fraud. A bribe paid to win a financing contract will normally be fraudulently concealed with the aim that the award appears to have been won on a genuine arms-length basis.

CORRUPTION AND ENGINEERING


How Corruption occurs?.
Corruption in relation to an engineering and construction project can occur in two areas:

In the provision and management of the financing for a project. During project execution tendering, construction, maintenance of a project). (planning, design, operation and

CORRUPTION AND ENGINEERING


Impact of Corruption.
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impact negatively on the economy as a whole, on the well being of the industry and on its capacity to address development imperatives

leads to poor quality construction or this supports an environment of poor project selection and insufficient maintenance can significantly reduce the economic return to investments, and carry high human costs in terms of injury and death.

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4 5

means higher commercial rents, and therefore higher costs of goods and services.

affects health and welfare of people when it touches the quality of construction i.e. when buildings fail to meet safety requirements and specifications due to corruption and bribery in building materials and workmanship or to bribery of public inspectors.

damaging the system and contribute to sub-standard engineering practice because of the unethical behaviors of some person who executing projects which are unnecessary, unsuitable, uneconomic or dangerous and the specification of components which are over-priced, or expensive to operate and maintain, or the supply of defective equipment, materials or services which is not meet the engineering standard specification.

CORRUPTION AND ENGINEERING


Examples of Corruption.
There are so many cases of corruption in engineering and construction industry has been detected and reported. Below are some examples of incident which are involving corruption in engineering and construction industry;

Examples of Corruption
Case 1 : Roof Collapse of Kuala Terengganu Sports Stadium

Case 1 : Roof Collapse of Kuala Terengganu Sports Stadium


Summary of the Volume 1 report reveals the following findings on the cause of the collapse:

The design was inadequate; the designer failed to take into account the full consideration of the support conditions of the roof structure;
The roof was erected poorly resulting in misaligned geometry; There was no quality control at site; and Materials and quality of workmanship did not meet specifications.

Case 1 : Roof Collapse of Kuala Terengganu Sports Stadium


As a result, a consulting engineer was charged at the Sessions Court, in connection with the collapse of the roof of the Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium in Gong Badak. He was charge under corruption of acting like an approved checker in issuing a document on the main roof truss system and its associated works, dated January 15, 2009, for the proposal to build the main stadium known as the Terengganu Sport Complex. He is alleged to have signed and given the document to the state public works department (PWD) director Rosli Zainal and duped State Secretary Datuk Mokhtar Nong into believing he was the approved checker.

Examples of Corruption
Case 2 : Collapse of Kuala Dipang Cable Suspension Pedestrian Bridge

Case 2 : Collapse of Kuala Dipang Cable Suspension Pedestrian Bridge


From observation of two engineers who have expertise in building bridges agreed that the suspension bridge which collapsed at Kuala Dipang was poorly engineered without safety in mind after viewing photos published in newspapers. They claim that;
The

pole in this case was not embedded deep enough. The reinforcement of the pole appears to be done on weak soil too.
such

structures are not advisable for such ground as soil on riverbanks can be unpredictable. There is high risk of soil failure due to the moisture and water from the river.

Case 2 : Collapse of Kuala Dipang Cable Suspension Pedestrian Bridge


no proper soil testing and solid ground anchoring to offset the expected loading on the bridge. Safety features should also be installed in case of a failure. bridges should be inspected regularly for worthiness and expressed shock when told the ill-fated bridge had failed barely a week after it was opened for use.

According to the interviewed of several people, including the Kampar district officer and the chief assistant district officer, they revealed that the council was never informed of such a structure. They believe that there are corruption element involved in the construction of Kuala Dipang suspension bridge which need to investigate deeply and transparently.

Examples of Corruption
Case 3 : Crack of Middle Road Ring 2 (MRR2) Flyover

Case 3 : Crack of Middle Road Ring 2 (MRR2) Flyover


Findings from British Consultant, Halcrow Consultants Ltd who was appointed by the government to investigate the cause of cracks suggested design deficiencies and the improper anchoring were responsible for cracks and were finally accepted by the ministry. According to Prof. Dr. Mohd Sabarudin, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Natural Resources, College of Engineering & Technology University of Malaysia (KUKTEM), the reason of MRR2 were cracked are; First, install the waterproofing membrane may reduce the formation of DEF but will not be able to avoid the deterioration of the bridge structural capacity crutch

Case 3 : Crack of Middle Road Ring 2 (MRR2) Flyover

Second, cracks found on the struts of the bridge have a specific pattern and occurring around the zone of high stress. Furthermore, 31 of the 33 bridges fractured struts are almost the same. This is more akin to cracking due to inability strut bears the load applied. Third, the critical DEF zone experiencing persistent dry damp conditions. This is not true in the bridge. In addition, for DEF occurs at a critical point, the water that seeps must contain sufficient sulfate, or that there sulfate content in the concrete.

Case 3 : Crack of Middle Road Ring 2 (MRR2) Flyover

Fourth, rarely cracking of concrete structures due to chemical reactions such as DEF. Typically fractures such as those on the bridge crutch because of incapacity strut structure bears the burden, whether due to structural design or construction specification. Fifth, cracks patched about a year ago have shown crack again. This was not possible due to the DEF. It is more akin to the fracture zone due to the inability to bear the load applied.

Case 3 : Crack of Middle Road Ring 2 (MRR2) Flyover

According to the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (SPRM), confirmed its investigation into the issue of corruption construction Middle Ring Road 2 (MRR2) involving two men with title datuk has been completed and submitted to the prosecution. SPRM investigations director Datuk Mohd. Shukri Abdull told, the government is satisfied with the overall outcome of the inquiry and have recorded evidence of the two men, aged 50's. According to him, the SPRM also took documents highway construction projects involving both of them.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION


From the fact and examples given, indicate that unethical conducts especially involving in corruption have a direct and negative impact on the quality of construction and contribute to sub-standard engineering practices because; a) Corruption is opposed to the principles and canons of engineering codes of ethics. b) Materials used and quality of workmanship did not meet engineering standard specification. c) Damaging the system, carrier and reputation engineering professionalism. of an

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION


Recommendation; a) The main public agencies of developing countries are encouraged to enforce existing laws and procedures and to set a standard code of ethics. b) Consultants should exercise their duty of care in performing their works and not resort to unethical behaviour for approving any sub-standard work. They should not earn profit in unethical ways (corruption). c) Construction parties should always be alert and try to avoid any unethical behaviour especially involving in corruption among the construction players.

REFERENCES
1. Al-Atas, Hussein S., 1999. Corruption and the Destiny of Asia (Singapore, Simon and Schuster (Asia) Pte. Ltd.). 2. Vee, C. and Skitmore, M. 2001. Corruption Survey in the Construction Industry, Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14(3), 63-77 3. Vee, C. and Skitmore, M. 2003. Professional Ethics in the Construction Industry, Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(2), 117-127 4. Shakantu W M.W. 2003. Corruption in the construction industry: Forms, susceptibility and possible solutions. CIDB 1st Postgraduate Conference 2003, Port Elizabeth. University of Cape Town. South Africa.

REFERENCES
5. Osborn, J.E 2002. Protecting against Corruption in Construction and Renovation: Corporate Counsels Essential Role in Making Integrity Pay; Problems and Solutions. Online available at www. Osborn law. com/publications / Protecting.html, accessed on 9 March 2008 6. Transparency International organisation. 2007. Corruption on construction projects. Online: http://www.transparency org/Examples of Corruption on Construction Projects.html [27thAugust 2006]. 7. World Economic Forum 2003. Engineering and construction tackles global corruption. On line at www.weforum.org/global/corruption. Accessed 20 June 2008. 8. Abdul-Rashid K, Hassan SF (2005). Capability of a Countrys Construction Industry to Combat Poverty: A Case Study on the OIC Member Countries. Proceedings of the 4th MICRA Conference, 4-5 May 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 04(22)-04(36).

REFERENCES
9. The Malay Mail, Terengganu Stadium Roff Collapses-After One Year of Being Built, 2 June 2009 10. Investigation Committee on the roof collapse at Stadium Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin, Final report on the roof collapse at Stadium Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin,Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu Darul Iman (Volume 1 report), 45p, December 2009 11. Maverick, SM., Project Report Middle Ring Road 2. February, 2006 was retrieved from http://mavrkyprojectphoto.blogspot.com/2006/02/middle-ring-road-2.html 12. Brandon, H., Controversial Issues Middle Ring Road 2, was retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuala_Lumpur_Middle_Ring_Road_2 13. Lim Kit Siang, Media Statement. August, 2004 was retrieved from http://www.dapmalaysia.org/all-archive/English/2004/aug04/lks/lks3158.htm