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LTE Networking & Capacity Coverage Analysis


Overview of LTE Wireless Network Planning LTE Coverage Analysis LTE Capacity Analysis Conclusion

Strategy for Introducing LTE

Introduce LTE into Overall Network
AdvantageOverall network can receive LTE service DisadvantageIntroducing LTE into remote areas will waste the resource and increase operation cost SuggestionIt is not necessary to introduce LTE into overall network at the early stage of network construction

Introduce LTE into Key Areas

AdvantageSave the resource and investment

Introduction Strategy

DisadvantageCan not ensure the continuous coverage of LTE network fringe areas Suggestion: Save the cost and fit the developing situation of high-speed data service

ZTE serialized base stations support smooth upgrading to LTE. After network operation, according to operator requirement or service requirement, upgrading should be gradually conducted to support 2/3/4G co-existence in an all-round way.

Characteristics of LTE

1 2 3

Variable Bandwidth: 1.4MHz, 3.0MHz, 5MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz, 20MHz Multi-carrier: 12 sub-carriers compose one RB; multiple RBs bear the service; overhead and service are borne and transimitted on RB

Multi-antenna Technology: Tx diversity, Rx diversity, 4-antenna or 8antenna beam forming and MIMO SCM technology

MCS Technology: Adaptive modulation and coding method

1-3 make LTE link and capacity more complicated

LTE Network Planning Key Nodes

LTE Capacity Planning

LTE Coverage Planning

Determine target coverage area, traffic model,

subscriber amount, coverage probability

Determine LTE networking strategy (band, time slot and time slot switch point)

Traffic Channel Comparison in TD-SCDMA Evolution

Traffic channel is shared channel Two-dimension scheduling in time domain


Adaptive Modulation and Coding Traffic channel is shared channel Quick scheduling in time domain Adaptive Modulation Coding


Traffic channel is dedicated channel The method of modulation and coding is fixed


Overview of LTE Wireless Network Planning LTE Coverage Analysis LTE Capacity Analysis Conclusion

LTE Networking Planning Coverage Planning

Need to consider UL/DL coverage requirement differences Under the condition of equal coverage range, UL/DL cell edge service rate is about 1:3

Traffic Channel

For DL, need to consider coverage ranges of PBCH,

Control Channel

PDCCH, PCFICH, PHICH For UL, need to consider coverage range of PUCCH

LTE Coverage Analysis Methodology Step Step Step 1 2 3

Determine occupied bandwidth Determine edge rate x kbps

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Determine edge subscribers RB amount, n RB

Determine transmit/receive antenna type

Determine time slot allocation proportion

Determine required SINR as input value of receiver signal strength budget

LTE Coverage Analysis Methodology Fixed RB Amount or SINR?

Subscriber Rate
Cell-edge Subscriber Rate kbps It can be set

Subscriber Resource
Resource occupied by cell-edge subscribers: amount of RB Correlate with wireless environment

Required SINR Dynamic and adaptive environment

& scheduling algorithm

Fixed Carrier-to-Interference Ratio Fixed RB Amount

SINR can be calculated according to rate requirement of cell-edge subscriber and required amount of RE fixed to bearing this rate service Because LTE is dynamic and adaptive environment, its unrealistic and unreasonable to fix SINR. Furthermore, SINR division of LTE is very detailed, its difficult to value SINR requirement of celledge subscribers

Determination of RB Amount Required by Cell-edge Subscribers

Different RB amount received by cell-edge subscribers will cause different coverage. This value must be fixed in link budget. Otherwise, SINR cant be obtained.

System Simulation
According to system simulation calculation, under common PF scheduling, 10MHz, 10 subscribers/cell, corresponding statistical result for the 5% worst cell-edge subscribers is about 3.4-4.4RB. Thereby, 5RB is reasonable for setting. Detailed statistical results of different scenarios are certainly different. This value directly correlates with scheduling algorithm


Link Budget Valuation

In LTE link budget Fixed as 5 RB (Applicable for full buffer service under the condition of 10MHz-20MHz bandwidth) 3-4 RB (Applicable for the bandwidth5MHz)

Consideration for Multi-antenna DL

If neither MIMO double-stream mode nor BF (Beam Forming) is ineffective, eNodeB can use SFBC method and it has SFBC gain
eNodeB Allocation: 1-transmit, 2-transmit, 4-transmit, 8-transmit; eUe Allocation: 1-receive, 2-receive, 4-receive; Support MIMO Double-stream Mode;

If BF mode is effective while MIMO doublestream mode is ineffective, antenna allocation is 4transmit or 8-transmit, eNodeB has no SFBC gain but BF gain
If MIMO double-stream mode is effective while BF mode is ineffective, eNodeB has no SFBC or BF gain.

Support Beam Forming

No matter MIMO double-stream mode is effective, eUe can use diversity reception method and it has diversity reception gain

Consideration for Multi-antenna UL

eUe Allocation: 1-transmit, 2-transmit, 4-transmit;

eNodeB Allocation: 1-receive, 2-receive, 4-receive and 8-receive; Dont support UL MIMO; Dont support SFBC

No matter how many antennas are allocated for UL eUe, theres no transmit diversity gain (At present, the protocol doesnt support UL MIMO and SFBC )

eNodeB diversity reception gain correlates with the amount of receive antennas If eNodeB is 1-receive, diversity reception gain is 0; If eNodeB is 2-receive, diversity reception gain is 3dB; If eNodeB is 8-receive, diversity reception gain is 8dB

Assumed Conditions of Coverage Analysis

Under common PF scheduling, 10MHz, 10 subscribers/cell The 5% worst defined subscribers are cell-edge subscribers

System Simulation

Cell power amplification allocation is 43dBm

Both of LTE and WiMAX are multi-carrier systems, but power allocations are different; for WiMAX, one more transmit antenna, one more power; but for LTE, when antenna amount increases, the power is shared among all the antennas


Conversion relation between RLC rate and MAC rate:

RLC rate = MAC rate90% Receiver noise floor calculation: Integrate on the occupied RB bandwidth Channel overhead: About 23-25%, roughly speaking, 3 in 14 time slots are for overhead

Link Budget

Control Channel Coverage Analysis

Coverage-limited control channel is PDCCH

Traffic Channel Coverage Analysis

For UL, traffic channel is limited. At the edge of control channel coverage, 2Tx2Rx transmit diversity can reach 440K, 8Tx2Rx BF can reach 935K

Analysis of Beam Forming Influence on Coverage

Influence on LTE TDD UL Coverage:


Influence on LTE TDD DL Coverage:


the increasing of receive antenna amount, cell UL coverage is gradually expanding forming


double-stream MIMO and BF are not open, DL coverage range is gradually expanding with the increasing of transmit or receive antenna amount


Overview of LTE Wireless Network Planning LTE Coverage Analysis LTE Capacity Analysis Conclusion

LTE Network Planning Capacity Planning


Equipment Performance (System Bandwidth, Transmit Power, UE Performance)

Factors Influencing Capacity


Scheduling Algorithm

Interference Elimination

LTE Network Planning Capacity Planning Method

LTE capacity planning method cant be conducted according to R4 traffic capacity planning method Because there are too many factors influencing capacity planning, formula cant be used for calculation

Throughput under the conditions of various allocations and path losses can be obtained by simulation and actual measurement experience In actual planning, check the form to confirm LTE capacity according to the detailed condition of planning area


Overview of LTE Wireless Network Planning LTE Coverage Analysis LTE Capacity Analysis Conclusion

Distributable resource is RB. It needs to be used with edge rate requirement to confirm SINR Multi-antenna technology is complicated. Pay attention to the differences among transmit diversity, diversity reception and MIMO double-stream gain

3 4

LTE often uses transmit diversity SFBC mode at cell edge and it doesnt use MIMO mode; SFBC/MIMO only exists in DL budget Noise of receiver is calculated from RB amount integration; there has been no final conclusion of UL/DL residual interference up to now; its generally recognized that application of ICIC and other advanced interference algorithms can greatly decrease it
Because LTE is multi-carrier system, diversity gain has evident advantage by comparison with TD-SCDMA and other broadband systems; LTE has evident advantage in DL/UL by comparison with TD-SCDMA coverage