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CE-207-F

SURVEYING-1
Prepared By Miss Sakshi Gupta

SECTION-A
Unit-I: Fundamental Principles of Surveying: Definition, objects, classification, fundamental principles, methods of fixing stations. Unit-II: Measurement of distances: Direct measurement, instruments for measuring distance, instruments for making stations, chaining of line, errors in chaining, tape corrections examples.

SECTION-B Unit-III: Compass and Chain Traversing: Methods of traversing, instruments for measurement of angles-prismatic and surveyor`s compass, bearing of lines, local attraction, examples. Unit-IV: Levelling: Definition of terms used in levelling, types of levels and staff, temporary adjustment of levels, principles of levelling, reduction of levels, booking of staff readings, examples, contouring, characteristics of contours lines, locating contours, interpolation of contours

SECTION-C Unit-V: Theodolite and Theodolite Traversing: Theodolites, temporary adjustment of theodolite, measurement of angles, repetition and reiteration method, traverse surveying with theodolite, checks in traversing, adjustment of closed traverse, examples. Unit-VI: Plane Table Surveying: Plane table, methods of plane table surveying, radiation, intersection, traversing and resection, two point and three point problems.

SECTION-D Unit-VII: Tacheometry: Uses of tacheometry, principle of tacheometric surveying, instruments used in tacheometry, systems of tacheometric surveying-stadia system fixed hair method, determination of tacheometric constants, tangential systems, examples. Unit-VIII: Curves: Classification of curves, elements of simple circular curve, location of tangent points-chain and tape methods, instrumental methods, examples of simple curves. Transition Curves-Length and types of transition curves, Vertical Curves: Necessity and types of vertical curves

UNIT -I

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPALS FOR SURVEYING

DEFINITION
Surveying is the technique of making measurements as well as determine the relative positions of points on the surface of the earth in order that the shape and extent of any portion of earths surface may be ascertained and delineated on a map or plan.

OBJECTIVE OF SURVEY

Primary objective is to prepare a map or plan. Results of surveys when plotted and drawn on paper to some scale constitute a plan. If the scale is small, representation on paper is called a map e.g. Map of India, plan of a building.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SURVEY
Based upon the nature of the field of survey land, marine, astronomical Based upon the objective of survey archeological, geological, mining, military Based upon the methods employed in survey triangulation, traverse Based upon the instruments employed chain, theodolite, tacheometric, compass, plane table, photographic and aerial

LAND SURVEY
Topographical surveys- To determine the natural features as well as artificial features of a country eg. Hills , valleys, lakes, roads, buildings, etc. Cadastral surveys to determine additional details like boundaries of houses etc. City surveys for laying out plots and constructing streets, water supply systems etc. Engineering surveys to determine quantities and to collect data for design of roads, sewerage system etc.

ENGINEERING SURVEYS

Reconnaissance surveys to determine the feasibility and rough cost of the scheme.
Preliminary surveys to choose the best location, to estimate the exact quantity and costs. Location surveys for setting out the work on the ground.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING

To work from the whole to the part To fix the position of new stations by atleast two independent processes

TO WORK FROM THE WHOLE TO THE PART

To establish a system of control points with high precision. Points are established by triangulation or precise traversing. In triangulation, the area to be surveyed is divided into large triangles which are surveyed with the greatest accuracy. Large triangles are further sub-divided into small triangles which are surveyed with less accuracy. It controls and prevents the accumulation of errors. Small errors become very big in the process of expansion of survey.

TO FIX THE POSITIONS OF NEW STATIONS


The new stations are fixed from points already fixed from (A) linear measurements (B) angular measurements (C) both linear and angular measurements

METHODS OF FIXING POINTS


To locate a point d with respect to two or more given points of reference: 1. Rectangular coordinates method: By the perpendicular dD and the distance Ad or Bd. B

D A

2. Trilateration by two distances AD and BD. A D B 3. Polar coordinates method- by angle DBA and distance BD. B D A

4. By the angle DBA and the distance AD . B D A 5. Triangulation by the two angles BAD and ABD measured at A and B. B D A

6.

7.

By intersection of two straight lines AB and CE with D as intersection point. B C A C D A B. .E E D By the two angles ADB and BDC With respect to three known points A, B and C
A D B C

Assignment:
Q1: Write a brief note on the fundamental principles of surveying.