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A Guide to Project Management

6 Basic Principles to Project Management


Define the job in detail Get the right people involved Estimate the time and costs Break the job down using the 40-hour rule Establish a change procedure Agree on acceptance criteria

Project Management Framework

Introduction Project Management Context Project Management Process

Introduction
What is a Project? What is Project Management? Relationship to Other Management Disciplines Related Endeavors

What is a Project?

Performed by people Constrained by limited resources Planned, executed and controlled

What is Project Management?


Competing demands for:
Scope Time Cost Risk Quality

Stakeholders with differing needs and expectations Identified requirements

Relationship to Other Management Disciplines


Functional departments and supporting disciplines Technical elements Management specializations Industry groups

Related Endeavors

Programs Project portfolio management Subprojects

Project Management Context


Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle Project Stakeholders Organizational Influences Key General Management Skills Social-Economic-Environmental Influences

Project Management Processes


Project Processes Process Groups Process Interaction Customizing Process Interactions Mapping of Project Management Processes

Mapping of Project Management Process


Process Group Knowledge Area
Project Scope Management Project Scope Management Initiation

Initiating

Planning
Project Plan Development

Executing
Project Plan Execution

Controlling
Integrated Change Control Scope Verification Scope Change Control

Closing

Scope Planning Scope Definition

Project Time Management

Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development


Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Quality Planning Quality Assurance

Schedule Control

Project Cost Management

Cost Control

Project Quality Management Project Human Resource Management Project Communications Management Risk Project Management

Quality Control

Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition Communications Planning

Team Development

Information Distribution

Performance Reporting Risk Monitoring and Control

Administrative Closure

Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration

Project Procurement Management

Contract Closeout

Project Management Knowledge Areas


Project Project Project Project Project Project Project Project Project Integration Management Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Human Resource Management Communications Management Risk Management Procurement Management

Project Integration Management

Project Plan Development Project Plan Execution Integrated Change Control

Project Plan Development


Inputs
Other planning outputs Historical information Organizational policies Constraints Assumptions

Tools and Techniques


Project planning methodology Stakeholders skills and knowledge Project management information systems (PMIS) Earned value management (EVM) Project plan(s) Supporting detail

Outputs

Project Plan Execution


Inputs
Project plan Supporting detail Organizational policies Preventive action Corrective action

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

General management skills Product skills and knowledge Work authorization system Status review meetings Project management information system Organizational procedures

Work results Change requests

Integrated Change Control


Inputs
Project plan Performance reports Change requests

Tools and Techniques


Change control system Configuration management Performance measurement Additional planning Project management information system

Output

Project plan updates Corrective action Lessons learned

Project Scope Management


Scope Scope Scope Scope Scope Initiation Planning Definition Verification Change Control

Scope Initiation
Inputs
Product description Strategic plan Project selection criteria

Tools and Techniques


Project selection methods Expert judgement

Outputs
Project charter Project manager identified/assigned Constraints Assumptions

Scope Planning
Inputs
Product description Project charter Constraints Assumptions

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Product analysis Benefit/cost analysis Alternatives identification Expert judgement Scope statement Supporting detail Scope management plan

Scope Definition
Inputs
Scope statement Constraints Assumptions Other planning outputs Historical information

Tools and Techniques


Work breakdown structure Decomposition

Outputs
Work breakdown structure Scope statement updates

Scope Verification
Inputs
Work results Product documentation Work breakdown structure Scope statement Project plan

Tools and Techniques


Inspection

Outputs
Formal acceptance

Scope Change Control


Inputs
Work breakdown structure Performance reports Change requests Scope management plan

Tools and Techniques


Scope change control system Performance measurement Additional planning Scope changes Corrective action Lessons learned Adjusted baseline

Outputs

Project Time Management


Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control

Activity Definition
Inputs
Work breakdown structure Scope statement Historical information Constraints Assumptions Expert judgement

Tools and Techniques


Decomposition Templates

Outputs
Activity list Supporting detail Work breakdown structure updates

Activity Sequencing
Inputs
Activity list Product description Mandatory dependencies Discretionary dependencies External dependencies Milestones

Tools and Techniques


Precedence diagramming methods (PDM) Arrow diagramming method (ADM) Conditional diagramming methods Network templates Project network diagram Activity list updates

Outputs

Activity Duration Estimating


Inputs
Activity list Constraints Assumptions Resource requirements Resource capabilities Historical information Identified risks

Tools and Techniques


Expert judgement Analogous estimating Quantitatively based durations Reserve time (contingency) Activity duration estimates Basis of estimates Activity list updates

Outputs

Schedule Development
Inputs
Project network diagrams Activity duration estimates Resource requirements Resource pool description Calendars Constraints Assumptions Leads and lags Risk management plan Activity attributes

Tools and Techniques


Outputs

Mathematical analysis Duration compression Simulation Resource leveling heuristics Project management software Coding structure Project schedule Supporting detail Schedule management plan Resource requirements updates

Schedule Control
Inputs
Project schedule Performance reports Change requests Schedule management plan

Tools and Techniques


Schedule change control system Performance measurement Additional planning Project management software Variance Analysis

Outputs

Schedule updates Corrective action Lessons learned

Project Cost Management

Resource Planning Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control

Resource Planning
Inputs
Work breakdown structure Historical information Scope statement Resource pool description Organization policies Activity duration estimates

Tools and Techniques


Expert judgement Alternatives identification Project management software

Outputs

Resource requirements

Cost Estimating
Inputs
Work breakdown structure Resource requirements Resource rates Activity duration estimates Estimating publications Historical information Chart of accounts Risks

Tools and Techniques


Analogous estimating Parametric modeling Bottom-up estimating Computerized tools Other cost estimating methods

Outputs

Cost estimates Supporting detail Cost management plan

Cost Budgeting
Inputs
Cost estimates Work breakdown structure Project schedule Risk management plan

Tools and Techniques


Cost budgeting tools and techniques

Outputs
Cost baseline

Cost Control
Inputs
Cost baseline Performance reports Change requests Cost management plan

Tools and Techniques


Cost change control system Performance measurement Earned value management (EVM) Additional planning Computerized tools

Outputs

Revised cost estimates Budget updates Corrective action Estimate at completion Project closeout Lessons learned

Project Quality Management

Quality Planning Quality Assurance Quality Control

Quality Planning
Inputs
Quality policy Scope statement Product description Standards and regulations Other process outputs

Tools and Techniques


Benefit/cost analysis Benchmarking Flow-charting Design of experiments Cost of quality

Outputs

Quality management plan Operational definitions Checklists Inputs to other processes

Quality Assurance
Inputs
Quality management plan Results of quality control measurements Operations definitions

Tools and Techniques


Quality planning tools and techniques Quality audits

Outputs
Quality improvement

Quality Control
In puts
Work results Quality management plan Operational definitions Checklists

Tools and Techniques


Inspection Control charts Pareto Diagrams Statistical sampling Flow-charting Trend analysis Quality improvements Acceptance decisions Rework Completed checklists Process adjustments

Outputs

Project Human Resource Management

Organizational Planning Staff Acquisition Team Development

Organizational Planning
Inputs
Project interfaces Staffing requirements Constraints

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Templates Human resource practices Organizational theory Stakeholder analysis Role and responsibilities assignments Staffing management plan Organization chart Supporting detail

Staff Acquisition
Inputs
Staffing management plan Staffing pool description Recruitment practices

Tools and Techniques


Negotiations Pre-assignment Procurement

Outputs
Project staff assigned Project team directory

Team Development
Inputs
Project staff Project plan Staffing management plan Performance reports External feedback

Tools and Techniques


Team-building activities General management skills Reward and recognition systems Collocation Training

Outputs

Performance improvements Input to performance appraisals

Project Communications Management

Communications Planning Information Distribution Performance Reporting Administrative Closure

Communications Planning
Inputs
Communications requirements Communications technology Constraints Assumptions

Tools and Techniques


Stakeholder analysis

Outputs
Communications management plan

Information Distribution
Inputs
Work results Communications management plan Project plan

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Communications skills Information retrieval systems Information distribution methods Project records Project reports Project presentations

Performance Reporting
Inputs
Project plan Work results Other project records

Tools and Techniques


Performance reviews Variance analysis Trend analysis Earned value analysis Information distribution tools and techniques

Outputs

Performance reports Change requests

Administrative Closure
Inputs
Performance measurement documentation Product documentation Other project records

Tools and Techniques


Performance reporting tools and techniques Project reports Project presentations

Outputs

Project archives Project closure Lessons learned

Project Risk Management


Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Monitoring and Control

Risk Management Planning


Inputs
Project charter Organizations risk management policies Defined roles and responsibilities Template for the organizations risk management plan Work breakdown structure

Tools and Techniques


Planning meeting

Outputs
Risk management plan

Risk Identification
Tools
Risk management plan Project planning outputs Risk categories Historical information

Tools and techniques


Documentation review Information-gathering techniques Checklists Assumptions analysis Diagramming techniques Risks Triggers Inputs to other processes

Outputs

Qualitative Risk Analysis


Inputs
Risk management plan Identified risks Project status Project type Data precision Scales of probability and impact Assumptions

Tools and Techniques

Outputs

Risk probability and impact Probability/impact risk rating matrix Project assumptions testing Data precision ranking Overall risk ranking for the project List of prioritized risks List of risk for additional analysis and management Trends in qualitative risk analysis results

Quantitative Risk Analysis


Inputs
Risk management plan Identified risks List of prioritized risks List of risks for additional analysis and management Historical information Expert judgement Other planning outputs

Tools and Techniques


Outputs

Interviewing Sensitivity analysis Decision tree analysis Simulation

Prioritized list of quantified risks Probabilistic analysis of the project Probability of achieving the cost and time objectives Trends in quantitative risk analysis results

Risk Response Planning


Inputs Risk management plan List of prioritized risks Risk ranking of the project Prioritized list of quantified risks Probabilistic analysis of the project Probability of achieving the cost and time objectives List of potential responses Risk thresholds Risk owners Common risk causes Trends in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis results

Tools and Techniques Avoidance Transference Mitigation Acceptance Outputs Risk response plan Residual risks Secondary risks Contractual agreements Contingency reserve amounts needed Inputs to other processes Inputs to a revised project plan

Risk Monitoring and Control


Inputs Risk management plan Risk response plan Project communication Additional risk identification and analysis Scope changes
Tools and Techniques
Project risk response audits Periodic project risk reviews Earned value analysis Technical performance measurement Additional risk response planning Workaround plans Corrective action Project change requests Updates to the risk response plan Risk Database Updates to risk identification checklists

Outputs

Project Procurement Management


Procurement Planning Solicitation Planning Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration Contract Closeout

Procurement Planning
Inputs
Scope statement Product description Procurement resources Market conditions Other planning outputs Constraints Assumptions

Tools and Techniques


Make-or-buy analysis Expert judgement Contract type selection Procurement management plan Statement(s) of work

Outputs

Solicitation Planning
Inputs
Procurement management plan Statement(s) of work Other planning outputs

Tools and Techniques


Standard forms Expert judgement

Outputs
Procurement documents Evaluation criteria Statement of work updates

Solicitation
Inputs
Procurement documents Qualified seller lists

Tools and Techniques


Bidder conferences Advertising

Outputs
Proposals

Source Selection
Inputs
Proposals Evaluation criteria Organizational policies

Tools and Techniques


Contract negotiation Weighting system Screening system Independent estimates

Outputs
Contract

Contract Administration
Inputs
Contract Work results Change requests Seller invoices

Tools and Techniques


Contract change control system Performance reporting Payment system

Outputs
Correspondence Contract changes Payment requests

Contract Closeout
Inputs
Contract documentation

Tools and Techniques


Procurement audits

Outputs
Contract file Formal acceptance and closure