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Classification of animals according to nutrition : Carnivore Herbivore Omnivore

The

teeth (number and shape) The movement of the jaw (adapted for killing, biting or long-term chewing) The structure of the intestine (adapted to allow storage or more efficient digestion of food Partnership with symbiotic bacteria Food may be redigested to obtain maximum value from it

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Adaptation of the carnivore skull Adaptations of the alimentary canal to a highprotein diet

The

carnassial teeth (slide past one another like the blades of a pair of scissors to cut meat away from bone) Canines are long and pointed (can pierce flesh and are the killing teeth) Molar are flattened (ideal for crushing bone)

Large

stomach (can store food)

Duodenum,

ileum and colon are not enlarged (no large-scale bacterial breakdown of vegetable matter) is large (high- protein diet leads to a great deal of transamination and deamination

Liver

Rabbit : Diastema (gap between incisors and cheek teeth) provides space for tongue to move food around during chewing Incisors shaped like chisels (adapted for gnawing and scraping) No canine Molars and premolars have flat grinding surface (can continue to grow throughout life)

Upper

and lower jaw fit together loosely (to allow side-to-side movement during chewing Digest the food twice (eat their faeces) Symbotic cellulose-digesting bacteria live in part of the gut to form a fermentation chamber This fermentation/digestion occurs in a caecum and appendix of the large intestine

Cow/Sheep : Horny pad (replace the incisors and canines) Incisors and canines are alike (both act like blades, cutting upwards against the horny pad). This form of food gathering is called cropping Premolars and molars grind and chew the cropped vegetation (can grow continuously throughout the lifetime)

Upper

and lower jaw fit together loosely allows side-to-side movement Oesophagus allows reverse peristalsis (partially digested food from the stomach) can be returned to the mouth to be re-chewed. The stomach has four chambers: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. Food can pass between the chambers for complete digestion. Mammals that use this type of digestion are called ruminants

Incisors

(upper and lower jaw had flat and chisel-like for biting and cutting Canines pointed and poor developed Premolars 2 cusps on surface; grind and crush food Molars 4 to 5 cusps on surface ; large surface area for grinding Jaw movement : 1) sideways movement 2) Up and down movement