Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37

Land Surveying

Definition of Surveying in the State of Tennessee (T.C.A. 62-18-102)


Any service of work, the adequate performance of which involves the application of special knowledge of the principles of mathematics, the related physical and applied sciences, and the relevant requirements of law for adequate evidence to the act of measuring and locating lines, angles, elevations, natural and man-made features for the purpose of determining areas and volumes, for the monumenting of property boundaries, and for the platting and layout of lands and subdivisions thereof, including the topography, drainage, alignment and grades of streets, and for the preparation and perpetuation of maps, records, plats, field notes, records and property descriptions that represent these surveys.

Famous Land Surveyors


George Washington
Surveyor General in Virginia, 1749

Thomas Jefferson
County Surveyor for Albemarle County, VA, 1773

Lewis and Clark


Expedition to explore and survey the west

Daniel Boone
Resolved Kentucky land disputes

Abraham Lincoln
Surveyor in Illinois when elected to state legislature

Land Surveying
The science of determining the relative positions of points on the Earths surface. Geodetic Surveys Plane Surveys

Geodetic Survey
Takes into account the true size, shape, and gravity fields of the Earth
The geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earths gravity field which best fits global mean sea level

Provides significant precision Establishes highly accurate control networks


Images courtesy NOAA http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/foundations/gravity_surveys/

Plane Survey
Assumes the Earths surface to be a plane (flat) More common than geodetic surveys Precise enough for small-scale surveys in a limited area, such as a construction site Used to determine legal boundaries, construction surveys, and small-area topographic or control surveys
iStockphoto.com

Geodetic vs. Plane Survey


Plumb Line
Geodetic Survey Line of equal elevation Plane Survey Line of equal elevation

Rod

Rod Horizontal Plane Earths surface

Geoid or other Datum

Types of Surveys
Control Survey Topographic Survey Property Survey Site Survey Construction Survey

Control Survey
Establish precise horizontal and vertical positions of points that serve as a reference for other surveys

Photos Courtesy NOAA Courtesy Department of Public Works, Seminole County, FL

Topographic Survey
Gathers data on the location of natural and manmade features, contours, and ground elevation to create a topographic map

Courtesy USGS

Property Survey
(or Boundary Survey)

Establishes property lines for a lot Used to create a plat

Site Survey
(Plot Survey or Lot Survey)
Combination of a property survey and topographic survey May be required to receive a construction permit

Construction Survey
Locates points and elevations that can be used to establish correct locations and elevations for engineering and architectural projects

Courtesy Isle of Palms, SC Recreation Department

National Spatial Reference System (NSRS)


Common set of reference points for all surveys
Horizontal Datum = Collection of points of known latitude and longitude Vertical Datum = Collection of points of known elevation Benchmark (BM) = Permanent mark that establishes a point of known elevation
Wikimedia.org Courtesy NOAA http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/geod esy/geo05_horizdatum.html

Reference System Data


Information on datum points available at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgibin/datasheet.prl

Example Data Sheet

Optical Equipment
Requires a visual line-of-sight

iStockphoto.com

iStockphoto.co m

A theodolite measures vertical and horizontal angles

A total station is an electronic/optical surveying instrument

Optical Equipment
Automatic (Auto) Level Commonly used on building sites Internal compensator can automatically level the instrument

Kennedy

Measures difference in elevation between the line of sight and a point

Kennedy

Other Equipment

iStockphoto.com

Professional Tape Measure


Kennedy

Kennedy

Courtesy USGS http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/07_22_20 09_j51Qi76Hgb_07_22_2009_13

Kennedy

Field Book

Leveling Rod

Tripod

GPS Technology
Global Positioning System
A global navigation satellite system Developed by the U.S. Department of Defense A constellation of satellites that broadcast radio signals Receivers intercept several satellite signals in order to determine precise location

Courtesy NASA

Widimedia.com

GPS

Kennedy

iStockphoto.com

Telescope
Mirror

Auto Level
Sight

Bulls Eye Level Horizontal Tangent Knob Horizontal Angle Rotation Ring

Diopter Adjustment Ring

Eyepiece

Leveling Screws
Kennedy

Reading the Rod


Vertical crosshair Stadia hairs

Beveled hatch marks

Horizontal crosshair

View through the telescope

Reading the Rod

Upper Stadia Reading = 5.30 ft

Rod Reading = 5.25 ft


Lower Stadia Reading = 5.20 ft

Stadia Readings
Estimate distance between rod and instrument Rod intercept is the difference between stadia readings

Estimated distance
Stadia multiplier typically = 100
Indicated on inside of instrument case or in Instructional Manual

Stadia Readings
Upper Stadia Reading = 5.30 ft

Lower Stadia Reading = 5.20 ft Rod Intercept = 0.10 ft

Stadia Reading

Upper Stadia = 5.13 ft

Rod Reading = 5.06 ft


Lower Stadia = 4.99 ft

Read the Rod

Differential Leveling
The establishment of differences in elevation between two or more points with respect to a datum
Instrument Rod Rod

BM

Point of Unknown Elevation

Differential Leveling

Elev. 350.00 ft

Differential Leveling
Start with point of known elevation
7.59 ft
Rod reading 7.59 ft (BS) 357.59 ft (HI)

Sight to rod on BM
Backsight (BS)

Height of Instrument (HI)


HI = BM elev + BS HI = 350.00 + 7.59 = 357.59 ft

357.59 ft

Benchmark (BM) Point of Reference (POR)

Field Notes
AUTO LEVEL READINGS
STADIA

PT
BM

(+) BS
7.59

HI
357.59

(-) FS

ELEV
350.00

TOP/BOT STADIA
7.85 / 7.33

DIST /Angle
52 ft

Differential Leveling
Without moving the tripod, Sight to rod on point of unknown elevation Foresight (FS) Identify elevation of point
Elev = HI - FS Elev = 357.59 2.36 = 355.23 ft
Rod reading 2.36 ft (FS) 2.36 ft Elev. 355.23 ft Point of Interest

Field Notes
AUTO LEVEL READINGS
STADIA

PT
BM PT- A

(+) BS
7.59

HI
357.59

(-) FS

ELEV
350.00

TOP/BOT STADIA
7.85 / 7.33

DIST /Angle
52 ft 35 ft

x
2.36

355.23

2.54 / 2.19

Differential Leveling
2.36 ft (FS) 7.59 ft (BS)

Field Notes
AUTO LEVEL READINGS
STADIA

PT
BM
PT-A

(+) BS
7.59

HI
357.59

(-) FS

ELEV
350.00
355.23

TOP/BOT STADIA
7.85 / 7.33
2.54 / 2.19

DIST /Angle
52 ft
35 ft 47 ft 60 ft

x
2.36

PT- B PT-C

4.17 12.91

353.42 344.68

4.40 / 3.93 13.21 / 12.61

Image Sources
Sanford, F. (2006). Seminole County geodetic control points. Seminole County, Florida: Department of Public Works. United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Photo Library http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/cgs/marks1.html Istockphoto.com