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Pre-Solo Training Program

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5 Takeoffs and Landings / Crosswind Theory

In cooperation with Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)

Lesson 5 Objectives

During this briefing, you will continue to develop your skills by practicing takeoffs and landings. You will review and practice traffic pattern procedures, flying a rectangular course, radio communications, takeoffs, and landings. Upon completion of this briefing, you will fly a standard traffic pattern, and practice normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings. Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Takeoffs

To make a good takeoff, a pilot must consider several factors.


Aircraft performance Wind/Weather Airplane handling characteristics

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Aircraft Performance

Takeoff Distance

Density altitude Weight Wind Surface

Climb Rate Affected by pilot technique

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Effect of Wind

Headwind component will reduce takeoff distance and increase climb gradient; tailwind will increase distance and decrease climb gradient. Crosswind component will compromise directional control.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Effect of Crosswind

A cross wind will cause the airplane to try to turn into the wind. This tendency is caused by air pushing on the side of the vertical stabilizer and is called weather-vaning. The stronger the wind, the more pronounced the weather-vaning tendency. Positioning the controls properly during taxi will minimize the possible negative effects of a strong wind.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Position of Flight Controls with Crosswind on Taxi


Wind from front: Turn into wind

Wind from behind: Dive with the wind.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Effect of Crosswind on Taxi

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Correction on Taxi

Positioning of the flight controls keeps the wind going over the top of the airplane, helping maintain directional control and preventing the wind from lifting a wing (could flip plane over if wind strong enough).

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Wind Correction on Taxi

Because takeoffs are performed into the wind, taxiing to the runway usually involves a tailwind component. Keep the engine RPM as low as possible but not less than 1400 RPM!

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

The Takeoff

To make a good takeoff, it is important to use good flying technique. Lift the nose wheel as soon as possible, keep the nose wheel slightly off of the pavement and hold the airplane in a slightly nose-up wheelie attitude. Not brining up the nose wheel early in the takeoff roll is stressful on the nose gear and results in a bumpy takeoff roll.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

The Takeoff

With the nose wheel up in the air, the left turning tendencies of the airplane will be more pronounced. You will need right rudder to correct for the left turning tendencies. Dont be timid about applying rudder pressure to maintain directional control. Use whatever force is required to keep the airplane on the runway centerline.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

The Takeoff

The airplane will lift off the ground relatively quickly and should be flying within a few seconds after lifting the nose. At first the airspeed will be quite slow. Keep the nose low enough for the airspeed to accelerate to the normal climb speed (60 knots). Upon reaching 60 knots, pitch the airplane for a constant airspeed climb.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

The Initial Climb

Once the airplane is in the air and you have accelerated to 60 knots, continue to climb straight ahead. Once youve gained some altitude, are under good control with the airspeed at 60, and have a good climb rate, you can retract the flaps. With the flaps up, the recommended climb speed increases from 60 knots to 70 knots. Pitch the airplane for a 70 knot climb.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Takeoff and Initial Climb


Complete climb checklist climbing through 1,000 feet AGL Once clear of obstacles and climbing, retract flaps and climb at 70 KIAS Climb at Vy (60 KIAS) Airplane will fly at proper speed Raise nose-wheel/right rudder for directional control

Full Power

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Takeoff and Initial Climb

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Takeoff

Performing a takeoff with a crosswind, use the same technique as you would normally. If a crosswind is present, start the takeoff roll with ailerons into wind. This will prevent wind from getting under wing and compromising directional control. As the airplane accelerates, the amount of aileron required will decrease, keep some deflection but bring the ailerons closer to neutral. Use the rudder to stay on centerline

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Takeoff

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Takeoff

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Climb Out

Once airborne, turn into wind as required to track out on runway centerline. The airplane should be in wings-level, coordinated flight.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Turning Crosswind

Turn crosswind at 500 feet AGL (traffic permitting). At Lock Haven, thats 1050 feet on the altimeter. Keep climbing at 70 knots. At the proper distance from the runway, turn downwind. Level off into traffic pattern altitude 1,600 MSL (either on crosswind or downwind, whenever you get to altitude) Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Downwind

On downwind, maintain an altitude of 1,000 feet AGL (1,600 MSL) Reduce the power to 4000 rpm, and trim for a steady cruise at about 70 knots. You can adjust your speed as necessary for conditions or for other traffic. Abeam the touchdown point, reduce the power significantly and start to slow down. Initially, maintain your altitude, when speed slows to 60 knots, maintain 60 knots. Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Base

Turn base when the touchdown point is behind the trailing edge of the wing (or when traffic on final is clear past the wingtip) Note the altitude and distance to the airport, if you seem to far to glide, add a little power. If you seem too close, reduce power, maintain speed, and consider applying flaps. Target turning -3/4 mile final at about 500 feet AGL and at 60 knots.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Final Approach

Keep the airspeed at 60 knots. If the airplane appears to be on glide path or slightly high, reduce the power to idle. Set the flaps if necessary. Maintain 60 knots. If the airplane appears slightly low or below glide path, increase power slightly. Maintain 60 knots.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

The Landing

Fly the airplane down the runway centerline at 60 knots. As the airplane gets close to the ground (2025 feet), shift your view past the end of the runway. Look way out at the horizon and use your peripheral vision to detect changes in altitude. Hold the nose up until touchdown.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

The Landing

Once the airplane contacts the ground, keep the nose up. It is important to keep the nose up in the air as long as possible. As the airplane slows, use rudder pressure as necessary to keep the airplane on centerline. Keep the stick back. As the airplane slows, the nosewheel will gently settle to the runway. Make sure the nose wheel is straight at touchdown. Slow down straight ahead. Do not attempt to make a fast turn off of the runway. Once you are at a safe taxi speed, then you can clear the runway at the next opportunity.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Approach to Landing

Set flaps, airspeed ~60 KIAS

Stabilized approach at 60 KIAS. Flaps and power as required.

Line up with runway centerline on about mile final at 500 ft. AGL, airspeed 60 KIAS. Set flaps as required

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

When to Use Flaps

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Stabilized Approach

Stabilized Approach is very important! To have a stabilized approach you need to be tracking runway centerline, have the proper speed (60 knots), be on glide path, and have the airplane properly configured for landing and under control. Once the approach is stabilized, you will be able to see where the airplane is going to touch down. This is called the aiming point.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Aiming Point
The aiming point is where the airplane will appear to hit the ground (where glide path meets the surface). The aiming point will not have any relative movement. Points that the airplane is undershooting will appear to move up away from the airplane Points that the airplane is overshooting will appear to be moving down and underneath the airplane.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Aiming Point

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Aiming Point

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Aiming Point/Flare

The airplane will appear like it is going to touch down at the aiming point, and it will if you do not flare. The flare, or round-out, is the transition from the glide to the runway at approach speed to the landing attitude and touchdown speed. The flare is accomplished by applying back pressure on the stick at the proper time, and keeping the nose up as the airplane nears touchdown. Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Final Approach/Flare

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Flare/Round-out

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Flare/Round-out
Look Here! Looking down the runway will give you a much better idea of your attitude!

Looking too close to the airplane will usually cause the pilot to flare late, not flare enough, and flare too quickly. (too little, too fast, too late = hard landing)

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Landings

Landing with a crosswind requires the same procedures and technique as a normal landing. Track down the runway centerline (turn into wind). In the flare, bank slightly into the wind and use rudder to orient the airplane parallel with the runway. It sometimes helps to bank into the wind and use rudder to straighten out before the flare while you are learning. You will get better with experience. Have good posture! Sit upright and square in your seat, keep your head square to your shoulders. This will help you determine exactly where the airplane is pointing. Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Approach and Landing

Approach pointed into wind to track centerline.

Bank into wind and orient airplane parallel with runway prior to touchdown (use rudder)

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Crosswind Approach and Landing

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

What to do if things go wrong.

If something doesnt seem right on takeoff, you have any control problems, suspect an engine malfunction, or have an engine failure, simply close the throttle (full idle) and stop straight ahead. If the airplane is already airborne but there is still adequate runway ahead, you can land straight ahead.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

What to do if things go wrong.

Landing an airplane involves too many variables to describe; especially at first, dont be surprised if it takes several attempts to get a good approach. If youre not satisfied with the approach, if your touchdown will not occur within the first 1/3 of the runway, or if the approach is not stabilized on final, simply perform a go-around and try again.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Review Questions

Define weather-vaning. How does a headwind component impact takeoff distance and climb gradient? Where should you be looking during the landing flare? What should you do if problems develop during the takeoff roll?

What should you do if your approach is not stabilized on final?


What should you do if you dont touch down on the first 1/3 of the runway?

Write down your answers before continuing to next slide

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

Review Answers

Define weather-vaning. Tendency of an aircraft on the ground to turn into a crosswind How does a headwind component impact takeoff distance and climb gradient? Decreases takeoff distance; increases climb gradient Where should you be looking during the landing flare? Toward the far end of the runway What should you do if problems develop during the takeoff roll? Abort the takeoff if sufficient runway remains What should you do if your approach is not stabilized on final? Go around! What should you do if you dont touch down on the first 1/3 of the runway? Go around!

Review any missed questions before continuing to todays flight.

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5

On Todays Flight

Well practice normal or crosswind takeoffs. Try to make the takeoff as smooth as possible. Fly a normal traffic pattern Practice normal or crosswind landings. Get the approaches stabilized, start the flare at the proper time, look all the way down the runway, and hold the nose up as long as possible.

Thanks to Mid Island Air Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI)

Flight Briefing: Lesson 5