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# WAYS OF EXPRESSING CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION

Percent by Mass - for a given mass of solution, a certain percent of that mass is solute. - Mass percent concentrations are most generally used for solids dissolved in liquids:

Sample Problems:
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## Percent by Volume - is the volume of a liquid in 100 mL of solution.

- is used to express the concentration of alcohol in beverages. Wines generally contain 12% alcohol by volume. - The beverage industry also uses the concentration unit of proof (twice the volume percent). Pure ethyl alcohol is 100% and therefore 200 proof. Scotch whiskey is 86 proof, or 43% alcohol by volume.

## WAYS OF EXPRESSING CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION

Percent by Volume

Sample Problem:

## Percent by mass/volume (m/v)

- This method expresses concentration as grams of solute per 100 mL of solution. - With this system, a 10.0%-m/v-glucose solution is made by dissolving 10.0 g of glucose in water, diluting to 100 mL, and mixing. The 10.0%-m/v solution could also be made by diluting 20.0 g to 200 mL, 50.0 g to 500 mL, and so on. Of course, any other appropriate dilution ratio may be used:

## WAYS OF EXPRESSING CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION Sample Problems:

2. A patient receives 750 mL of a 10.% (w/v) aqueous glucose solution. How many grams of glucose does the patient receive?

2. An individual is legally intoxicated with a blood alcohol level of 0.08% (m/v) of ethanol. How many grams of ethanol are contained in 5000 mL of blood with this level?

## WAYS OF EXPRESSING CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION

Parts per Million (ppm) - is the number of parts in 1,000,000 parts of solution. - The parts may be expressed in either mass or volume units as long as the same unit is used for both the numerator and denominator.

Sample Problem:

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## Solve the ff. problems as directed:

Sample Problem:
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2. Infant formula is often prepared from evaporated milk. In 1972, it was reported that canned evaporated milk contained up to 3.2 ppm of lead. At this concentration, how many grams of lead are present in 8 oz (470 mL) of evaporated milk? Assume that 1 mL of the solution is 1 g.

## Solve the ff. problem as directed:

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2. A sports drink contains 25 mg of magnesium in an 8.0-oz portion (1 oz = 29.6 mL). How many parts per million does this represent? Assume that the mass of 1.0 mL of the solution is 1.0 g.

3. Mannitol, a carbohydrate, is supplied as a 25% (w/v) solution. This hypertonic solution is given to patients who have sustained a head injury with associated brain swelling. What volume should be given to provide a dose of 70. g?