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Concept of

What Is Management?
 Managerial Concerns
 Efficiency
 “Doing things right”
 Getting the most
output for the least
 Effectiveness
 “Doing the right things”
 Attaining
organizational goals
Management is a problem solving process of
effectively achieving organizational objectives
through the efficient use of scare resources
in a changing environment
Key Elements
Problem Solving Process
Organizational Objectives
Scarce Resources
Changing Environment
Why Study Management?
The Value of Studying Management
 The universality of management
 Good management is needed in all organizations.
 The reality of work
 Employees either manage or are managed.
 Rewards and challenges of being a manager
 Management offers challenging, exciting and creative
opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work.
 Successful managers receive significant monetary
rewards for their efforts.
Who Are Managers?
 Manager
 Someone who coordinates and oversees the
work of other people so that organizational goals
can be accomplished.
Classifying Managers
 First-line Managers
 Individuals who manage the work of non-
managerial employees.
 Middle Managers
 Individuals who manage the work of first-line
 Top Managers
 Individuals who are responsible for making
organization-wide decisions and establishing
plans and goals that affect the entire
What Do Managers Do?
Functional Approach
 Planning
 Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve
goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate
 Organizing
 Arranging and structuring work to accomplish
organizational goals.
 Leading
 Working with and through people to accomplish goals.
 Controlling
 Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work.
What Do Managers Do?
 Management Roles

Approach (Mintzberg)
 Interpersonal roles
 Figurehead, leader, liaison
 Informational roles
 Monitor, disseminator,
 Decisional roles
 Disturbance handler,
resource allocator,
The Behavioral Approach
Organizational Behavior
 The study of the actions of
people at work; people are
the most important asset of
an organization
 . . . a field of study that
investigates how individuals,
groups and structure affect
and are affected by behaviour
within organizations, for the
purpose of applying such
knowledge toward improving
an organization’s
The Layers of
The Organization

Organizational culture
Decision making
The Group Leadership

Power and politics

The Individual Groups and teams

Motivating self and others

Values and attitudes
The Systems Approach
 System Defined
 A set of interrelated and interdependent parts
arranged in a manner that produces a unified
 Basic Types of Systems
 Closed systems
 Are not influenced by and do not interact with their
environment (all system input and output is internal).
 Open systems
 Dynamically interact to their environments by taking in
inputs and transforming them into outputs that are
distributed into their environments.
The Contingency
Contingency Approach Defined
 Also sometimes called the situational approach.
 There is no one universally applicable set of
management principles (rules) by which to
manage organizations.
 Organizations are individually different, face
different situations (contingency variables), and
require different ways of managing.
Popular Contingency
• Organization size
As size increases, so do the problems of coordination.
• Routineness of task technology
Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership
styles, and control systems that differ from those required by
customized or nonroutine technologies.
• Environmental uncertainty
What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be
totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable
• Individual differences
Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy,
tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations.