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Basic Avionics Course

Navigation Systems
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Navigation ???

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Navigation
It means knowing where you are, where you want to go, and having a good idea of how much time and fuel it will take to get there.

Navigation means finding your way.


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Navigation Systems
ADF. VOR. ILS. Marker Beacon System. DME. ATC. GPWS. WR. RA. TCAS. INS/IRS.
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Automatic Directional Finder (ADF)


Function. Operating Frequency Range. Transmitter & Receiver Location. Antenna Location. No. of ADF Systems on the A/C. ADF Principle of Operation. Homing. ADF Receiver. Operation. Indication. ADF with a non rotating antenna. ADF antenna correction.
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ADF Function
It determines the A/C route by following the ADF GND stations using the radio signals to indicate the relative bearing to any station.

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Operating Frequency Range


From 190 KHZ to 1750 KHZ with 0.5 KHZ spacing. Its range is not limited to line-of sight distance It can receive on both AM radio stations and NDB (non directional beacons)

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ADF (contd)
Transmitter & Receiver Location: Transmitter is the NDB GND station, receiver is on A/C. Antenna Location: On the top surface of the A/C No. of ADF Systems on the A/C: 2 ADF systems on the A/C

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ADF

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Antenna Location

ADF 1, 2

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ADF Principle of Operation


The radio wave is an electromagnetic field. The E is parallel to the radiating element while the H is perpendicular to the radiating element.

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Loop Antenna
It is a directional antenna. It indicates the direction of the station, but cannot determine if the station is in front/back or to the right/left of the aircraft. It is in the shape of rectangular or circular loop. It uses magnetic field component of the radio wave.

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Loop Antenna

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Loop Antenna

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Loop Antenna

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Loop Antenna Field Pattern

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Sense Antenna
Its function is to indicate if the station is in front / back or to the left/right of the aircraft. It is a capacitive antenna. It couples only with the electrical component of the radio wave. It is an omni-directional antenna, its signal strength is the same all around.

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Sense Antenna Field Pattern

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ADF Combined Antenna Patterns

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Homing
The A/C tries to follow the wave from the ADF GND station by directing the loop antenna to face the ADF GND station. When the A/C arrives the ADF station, the power sign is reversed to indicate that an old station is passed and a new station is ready for tunning.

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ADF Receiver
Sense Antenna
Loop antenna 90 shifter Balanced modulator mixer

47 Hz oscillator

47 Hz detector

M
Phase detector & demodulator 47 Hz filter

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ADF operation
The loop antenna receives the H components of the wave then shifted by 90 0 to be in phase or out of phase with the E component. The balanced modulator achieves AM by 47 Hz. The mixer mixes the H and E to be ready for detecting. The audio detector is used to obtain the audio frequency signal with its phase. this signal is compared with the original 47 Hz to get the (+) or (-) sign. This sign is fed to a motor, synchro and modulated by a 400 Hz AC power to determine the rotation direction of the loop antenna.
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ADF Indication

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ADF Indication

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ADF with a non rotating antenna


It is not strictly required to rotate the loop antenna to find the null position. A fixed non rotating loop antenna is used to be trouble free due to fewer moving parts. A fixed loop antenna consists of 2 perpendicular antennas and connected to 2 coils of a resolver stator. The fixed loop antenna has low probability of failure and easy for maintenance.

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ADF antenna correction


Correction is done for sense antenna and loop antenna. A quadrature error correction (QEC) is a group of variable capacitors and coils that are adjusted to correct the loop antenna reading. A coupler is used to match the sense capacitive antenna to the receiver.

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Questions ???

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Outlines
ADF. VOR. ILS. Marker Beacon System. DME. ATC. GPWS. WR. RA. TCAS. INS/IRS.
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Very High Frequency Omni- Range System (VOR)


Function. Operating Frequency Range. Antenna Location. Basic Definitions. VOR transmitter and Transmitted Wave. VOR Receiver. VOR Received Signals. VOR O/P forms.

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VOR
Function: The VOR determines the entrance angle of the A/C to the VOR station. Operating Frequency Range: From 108 to 118 MHz with 50 KHz channel spacing. 108. x 0 or 108. x 5. ( even tenth)

Antenna Location: On the vertical stabilizer.


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Antenna Location
VOR

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Basic Definitions
Radial. Bearing. Heading. Course (CRS). Course error. VOR deviation. Relative bearing.

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VOR transmitter and Transmitted Wave


30 rpm rotating antenna

30 Hz oscillator

FM modulator

AM modulator

Power amplifier

9960 Hz carrier

Station frequency

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Transmitted Wave
The antenna isnt physically rotated. It transmits a directional beam and rotates with 30 rpm. This is the same effect of the rotating antenna.

30 rpm

BWD beam

FWD beam

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Transmitted Wave
When the antenna points to north, the phase of the 30 Hz FM is (+). When the antenna points to south, the phase of the 30 Hz FM is (-). The VOR signal & VOR receiver dont tell anything about the VOR station location w.r.t A/C but it determines the receiver location w.r.t the magnetic north and VOR station.

This is the A/C bearing.


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VOR Receiver
30 Hz AM detector RF amplifier IF amplifier Audio detector

bearing Phase detector

30 Hz FM detector

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VOR Received Signals


1. 2. 3. 4. 30 Hz AM. 30 Hz FM. Radio frequency signal. Station identification tone.

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VOR O/P forms


1. VOR / RMI:

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VOR O/P forms


2. VOR / HIS:

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Questions ???

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Outlines
ADF. VOR. ILS. Marker Beacon System. DME. ATC. GPWS. WR. RA. TCAS. INS/IRS.
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Instrument Landing System (ILS)


Definitions. Function. Operation Frequency Range. No. of ILS Systems on A/C. Tuning. System Construction. ILS Field Pattern. ILS Receiver. Gain Programming or Beam Convergence. ILS Indications.
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Definitions
Decision Height:
The height at which the pilot can see the land at this point then he can legally land his A/C. If he cant see to land, he must go around.

Runway Visual Range (RVR):


It is the lower limit of visibility for safe landing.

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Definitions
Cat II Landing conditions:
1. Airport is Cat II certified. 2. A/C is Cat II equipped. 3. Flight crew and maintenance personnel are Cat II certified.

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ILS Function
It is a system which helps the pilot during landing especially in poor visibility conditions. It is 2 subsystems: 1- Localizer (LOC): It ensures that landing on the airport center line. It provides lateral guidance. 2- Glideslope (G/S): It ensures that landing in the 1st third of the airport. It provides vertical guidance.
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Localizer

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INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)


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Glideslope

Correct Glidepath

Descent Cone Runway

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LOCALIZER GLIDE SLOPE

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ILS (contd)
Operating Frequency Range: LOC band: 108.00 to 111.00 MHz odd no. VOR band: 108.00 to 111.00 MHz even no. G/S band: 329to 335 MHz No. of ILS systems: There are 2 ILS systems on the A/C. Tuning: 1- Automatic tuning: by the FMGC 2- Manual tuning: by the MCDU 3- Back up tuning: by the RMP
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System Construction
ILS is consists of a receiver unit on the A/C and a transmitter on the GND

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Field Pattern
A 90 Hz & 150 Hz directional waves are Tx. They are in phase. The pilot tries to centerline on the runway. The Rx measures the relative strength of the 2 audio signals. Selecting the LOC frequency will automatically select the G/S frequency.
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Field Pattern
LOC Geometry: 2 dots at each side, each dot is 75 mv. The LOC transmitter antenna is located at 1000 ft beyond the far end of the runway end. G/S Geometry: The CRS width is measured as the same of the LOC but vertically not horizontally.

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ILS Receiver

RF amplifier

IF amplifier

90 Hz filter
Audio detector 150 Hz filter Indicator

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Gain Programming or Beam Convergence


It is the process achieved by the autopilot to overcome the increased sensitivity of indication as we get closer to the ground. This problem is presented either in pilot or autopilot control. The autopilot attenuate the Glidepath signal and increase the attenuation continuously as the A/C approaches the ground.

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ILS Indication

Signal Integrity Flag Indicates if instrument is unreliable

Dots Each dot on the instrument represents 2 of deviation

Glideslope Deviation from optimal glide path

Localizer Deviation from runway centre line

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Videos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3wnl1Ut--o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZnEtr6Ei1sc

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Questions ???

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Thank You
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