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Algae its role, species and production requirements

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Role of algae in aquaculture


First link in the chain of live food manufacture and nutrition.
Culture diet for rotifers Enrichment diet for rotifers

Green water technique


Provides a direct source of nutrition for larvae Provides background rotifer feeding Other zootechnical benefits

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Role of algae in the green water larval rearing technique


An anti-bacterial agent In situ biological filter and producer of oxygen Light filter Promoter in the location of prey organisms Stimulation of enzymatic synthesis and onset of feeding in young larvae

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Practical usage of algae in the hatchery


Maintenance of master/stock rotifer cultures Feeding or co-feeding of rotifer mass cultures Enrichment diet for rotifers prior to feeding the larvae Used in the larval rearing tanks as Green water techniques

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Species commonly used in aquaculture (a)


Chlorophyceae green algae
Chlorella salina (8 m) Chlorella sp. Dunaliella sp. Nannochloris atomus (4 m)

Prasinophyceae greenish coloured algae


Tetraselmis chui (14 m) Tetraselmis suecica ( 12m)

Eustigmatophyceae greenish yellow algae


Nannochloropsis oculata ( 3 m) Nannochloropsis sp. (4 m) Nannochloropsis gaditana (4 m)
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Species commonly used in aquaculture (b)


Prymnesiophyceae - golden brown flagellates
Isochrysis galbana (7 m) Isochrysis sp. (Tahitian) (9 m) Monochrysis Pavlova lutheri (7 m)

Cryptophyceae naked flagellates


Rhodomonas sp. (17 m) Chroomonas salina (17 m)

Bacillariophyceae diatoms
Chaetoceros calcitrans (5 m) Skeletonema costatum (9 m) Thalassiosira pseudonana (9 m)
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Various algal species

(CCAP-M, Oban)

Chaetoceros sp.

Nannochloropsis salina CCAP 849/2 Dunaliella

Rhinomonas reticulata var reticulata (Rhodomonas) CCAP 995/2


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Sources of algae
CCAP Culture collection of algae and protozoa, Oban, UK. www.ife.ac.uk/ccap/ Algobank Microalgae Strain Bank, Universite de Caen, France. www.unicaen.fr SAG Sammlung von Algenkulturen, Gottingen, Germany www.gwdg.de/~botanik/phykolgia CCMP Provasoli-Guillard National Centre for culture of marine phytoplankton, Westboothbay harbour ME, USA. http://ccmp.bigelow.org UTEX Culture collection of algae at the univesity of Texas at Austin www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex

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Calculating algal requirements

Hatchery - Algae requirements Sea bream General assumptions 1) Av. daily algal consumption/m3 larval volume (L) 2) Av daily requirement per 100M rotifer production (L) 3) Algal production volume/m3 daily production (m3) Annual production target (2g juveniles) 20 100 6,7

Requirements
Initial larval rearing vol (m3) Daily larval algae requirement (m3) Daily rotifer production (M) Daily rotifer algae requirement (m3) Total daily algal production (m3) Algal production volume needed (m3) No of 0.5m3 bags needed No of 4m3 tanks required Total algal production volume (m3)

2.000.000
62 1,23 615 0,62 1,8 12 28 0 14

4.000.000
123 2,46 1231 1,23 3,7 25 56 0 28

6.000.000
185 3,69 1846 1,85 5,5 37 54 4 43

10.000.000
308 6,15 3077 3,08 9,2 61 50 12 73

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Calculating the volume of algae required for rotifer production.


(6 million juveniles at 20 x 10 cells/ml Nannochloropsis)
6

Stock cultures
Approx. 150 - 300 litres per day

Mass cultures
Using algae and yeast there is an average daily requirement of 100 litres of algae for every 100 million rotifers produced. A 6 million hatchery would use 2 x 109 rotifers per day => 2m3 of algae per day. (3 production runs of 2 mill)

Rotifer enrichment.
If all the rotifers were enriched at 2million/ml need 1m3 of tank space and at least 1m3 of algae.
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Calculating the volume of algae required for green water larval rearing
(6 million juveniles at 20 x 10 cells/ml Nannochloropsis)
6

20 L of algae per m3 of larval rearing per day 6 at 20 x 10 cells/ml A 6 million production hatchery will have approximately 185 m3 of larval rearing. Daily larval rearing requirement of 3.7 m3

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Daily algal requirement


Rotifer stock cultures Rotifer mass cultures Rotifer enrichment Green water larval rearing Total requirement 0.3 m3 2.0 m3 1.0 m3 3.7 m3 7.0 m3 /per day

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Typical cell densities achieved


Algal species Volumes up to 20 L Chlorella up to 75 Dunaliella tertiolecta 1-3 Nannochloropsis up to 75 Tetraselmis 1,8 Isochrysis sp Tahitian 17 Isochrysis galbana 20 Pavlova lutheri 16 Chaetoceros 18-40 Cell densities in cells x 106 / ml
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Volumes 200-500L 20 1-2 20 1,5 to 2.7 3-15 5-8 5-8 25-30

High density systems Indoor Outdoor 200 400 150 2,5 20 280 6 40

Algal culture techniques


Culture Air Vol. Litres Master tubes No 0.25 No 0.5 No 1-2 Yes 10-20 Yes 200-500 Yes High density Yes CO2 Culture time Temp. C No up to 1 month No Control 13-20 No up to 1 month No Control 13-20 No up to 2 weeks No Control 18-24 Yes 4-8 days 7-7.5 18-24 Yes 4-8 days 7-7.5 18-24 Opt. 5-7 days 7.5-8.5 20-30 Yes 1 month + 7.5-8.5 20-30 pH Transfer Quan. 10% 30% 75% 75% 80-100% 60-100% 30%/day Comments Diffuse light Diffuse light Continuous light Continuous light Continuous light Amb or art light Amb or art light

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Fluorescent shelf and overhead metal halide lighting

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Transparent walls and lighting

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Shelf lighting

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Under shelf and side lighting

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Fluorescent sack lighting

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Natural light greenhouse structures

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Indoor bag cultures

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High density culture systems

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Photo-bioreactor algal culture

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