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# Chapter: 10

## Concentricity and symmetry controls

By Chandan, PGTE Siddharth,PGTE

CONCENTRICITY CONTROL

## GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Interpret the concentricity control.

## Interpret the symmetry control.

Concentricity control
This is a type of location control. A median point is the midpoint of a twopoint measurement. A concentricity is the condition where the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of a cylinder (or a surface of revolution) are congruent with the axis of datum feature. A concentricity control is geometric tolerance that limits the concentricity error of a part feature.

Example:

Tolerance zone for a concentricity control is three dimensional. Tolerance zone of concentricity control is a cylinder. The cylinder is coaxial with the datum axis and diameter of the cylinder equal to the concentricity control tolerance value. Median points must lie within the cylindrical tolerance zone.

When using concentricity control, the specified tolerance and datum reference always apply on an RFS basis.

Example

TECHNOTE
The tolerance zone is a cylinder centered about the datum axis. The median points of the toleranced feature must be within the tolerance zone.

Concentricity application
Concentricity is used when:
Precise balance of part. Equal wall thickness. Equal distribution of mass.

## When concentricity is applied to a diameter, the following conditions apply:

The diameter must meet its size and Rule #1 requirement.
The concentricity control tolerance zone is a cylinder that is coaxial with a datum axis. The tolerance value defines the diameter of the tolerance zone.

All median points of the toleranced diameter must be within the tolerance zone.

The maximum possible distance between the median points of the toleranced diameter and the datum axis is half the concentricity tolerance value.

## Difference between Concentricity, Runout and Position (RFS).

On a part that rotate around an axis, three geometric controls are common.
Concentricity. Total Runout. TOP (RFS).

Tolerance zone

Tolerance zone

## Difference between Concentricity, Total Runout and Position (RFS).

The toleranced FOS may contain flats or be lobed and still be perfectly concentric. When specifying concentricity, Form of the toleranced diameter is allowed to vary to a greater extent than if a Total Runout control was used.

Before using a concentric control, the use of Tolerance Of Position (RFS) or Total Runout should be considered.

## Legal specification test for a concentricity control

For a concentricity control to be a legal specification, it must satisfy the following condition:
The feature control frame must be applied to a surface of revolution that is coaxial to the datum axis. Datum reference are required. The datum reference must ensure that a legal datum axis is established.

## Legal specification test for a concentricity control

The symbol must be shown in the tolerance portion of the feature control frame. Concentricity control is applied at RFS.

Inspecting concentricity
Inspecting Concentricity is different from inspecting Total Runout and Position (RFS) of coaxial diameter. Inspecting concentricity requires the establishment and verification of the location of a features median points.

Inspecting concentricity

## Checking the component

Inspecting Concentricity

## Setting with master

Differential reading on the section of part and when the part is rotated 360o .

Question 1
Describe the tolerance zone for concentricity?

Tolerance zone for a concentricity control is three dimensional. Tolerance zone of concentricity control is a cylinder. The cylinder is coaxial with the datum axis and diameter of the cylinder equal to the concentricity control tolerance value.

Question 2
The of the diameter B will be within the concentricity tolerance zone.

The Median points of the diameter B will be with the concentricity tolerance zone

Question 3

is

Maximum possible offset between a median point and the datum axis

Maximum possible offset between a median point and the datum axis is half the concentricity tolerance value.

Question 4
Identify legal specifications and illegal specifications

illegal illegal
legal legal illegal

Question 5
Describe a median point.

A median point is the midpoint of a twopoint measurement.

Question 6
Which of the following geometric tolerances can be used as coaxial controls: (a) Runout; (b) Concentricity; (c) Position (RFS); (d) All of these

(d)
Runout;

Concentricity;
Position (RFS);

Question 7
The tolerance zone for concentricity is

## (a) A cylinder at MMC;

(b) Two parallel lines; (c) Two parallel planes; (d) A cylinder at RFS.

The tolerance zone for concentricity is
A cylinder at RFS

SYMMETRY

DEFINITION

Symmetry is the condition where the median points of all opposed elements of two or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or centerplane of a datum feature.

A symmetry control is a geometric tolerance that limits the symmetry error of a part feature.

A symmetry control may only be applied to part features that are shown symmetrical to the datum centerplane.

The tolerance zone is centered about the datum centerplane. The width between the planes is equal to the symmetry control tolerance value.

When using a symmetry control, the specified tolerance and the datum references must always be applied on an RFS basis.
TECHNOTE

The tolerance zone is two parallel planes centered about a datum axis or centerplane.
The median points of the toleranced feature must be within the tolerance zone.

SYMMETRY APPLICATION

Symmetry is used when a primary consideration of symmetrical features is precise balance of the part, equal wall thickness, or another functional requirement that calls for equal distribution of part mass. Taking example of a slot:

The slot must meet its size and Rule #1 requirements. The symmetry control tolerance zone is two parallel planes that are centered about the datum centerplane.

The tolerance value of symmetry control defines the distance between the parallel planes. All the median points of the tolerated slot must be within the tolerance zone.

## Differences Between Symmetry and TOP(RFS)

Symmetry and Tolerance of Position (RFS) are two geometric controls that can be used to tolerate symmetrical part features.
GEOMETRIC CONTROL

CONCEPT Tolerance zone Tolerance zone applies to .. Types of part characteristics being controlled

SYMMETRY
Two parallel planes Median points of toleranced FOS Orientation and location

TOP (RFS)
Two parallel planes The centerplane of the AME Orientation and location

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## Legal Specification Test for a Symmetry Control

The feature control frame must be applied to a planar FOS that is symmetrical about the datum centerplane. Datum references are required. The datum references must ensure that a legal datum centerplane is established. No modifiers may be used in the feature control frame.

Inspecting Symmetry When inspecting this part, three separate checks are required : size of the slot, its Rule #1 boundary and

its symmetry.

SUMMARY
A summarization of concentricity and symmetry control information is shown in the table below.
Can be applied to Sybm Datum reference required Two or more planar features No Cylindrical or surface of revolution Yes Can affect WCB Can use Can override Rule #1 Tol. Zone shape

## modifier Yes No No Cyl.

r i

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Parallel Planes

1. Describe the tolerance zone for symmetry.

## Ans. Median point is the midpoint of a two point measurement.

3. What is the shape and size of the tolerance zone for the symmetry callout?

## 4. Does Rule #1 apply to tab B ?

Ans. YES

5. The symmetry callout controls the ________ of the tab B? A. centerplane of the AME B. median points C. straightness D. runout

Ans.

B. median points

6. The maximum offset of the centerplane of tab B relative to datum centerplane A is _______

Ans. 0.2

## 7. For each symbol shown below indicate if it is a legal specification. A.

B. C. D. i i 0.5 0.5m A A

i
i

0.5s
0.5l

As
Al

E. i

0.5p10

Ans.
i i

A.
B. C. D.

0.5 0.5m

A A

--- LEGAL
--- ILLEGAL --- LEGAL --- ILLEGAL

i
i

0.5s
0.5l

As
Al

E. i

0.5p10

--- ILLEGAL

THANK YOU