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FIREARM WOUNDS
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By

Dr. Arif Rasheed Malik


Associate Professor & Head Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, SIMS, Lahore
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WEAPONS ARE FASHION ACCESSORIES AND


EASILY AVAILABLE
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Firearm
An instrument or device with which it is possible to propel a projectile by means of the expansive force of the gases generated by the combustion of an explosive substance
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FIREARM WOUNDS

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Firearm wounding is a special form of trauma producing a breech through the body of a person by a bullet or shot charge Principles & Practice of Forensic Medicine by Nasib R. Awan

HISTORY OF FIREARMS

Firearms came to Europe from China To produce an efficient firearm, there are three basic criteria to be met.

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Weapon should be capable of causing substantial damage It should be reliable & convenient to use It should be reasonably accurate

Reverend Alexander John Forsythe, in 1807, living near Aberdeen, Scotland, held the first patent for a percussion ignition system..

HISTORY OF PROJECTILE WEAPONRY


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Earliest weapons: bow and arrow, crossbow, simple catapult to huge ballistics / trebuchet Gunpowder developed in china 1500 yrs ago; came to Europe and from 14th century used as weapon Gunpowder= Charcoal, Saltpetre (Potassium Nitrite), Sulphur Earliest guns were cannons, front then breech loading Early guns flintlock muzzle loading with 3 parts lock, stock and barrel

ASSAULT RIFLES
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AK-47 Assault rifle Developed: 1974 Mikael Kalashnikov Caliber: 5.45mm Magazine capacity: 30 Loaded weight: 3,600g Killing range: 1,350m

BALLISTICS
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Knowledge of physical forces acting on the projectile & missile by Nasib R. Awan

Interior Ballistics Exterior Ballistics Terminal / Wound Ballistics

Ballistics
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T H E O R E T I C A L

Interior ballistics
Wound ballistics

Exterior ballistics

P R A C T I C A L
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Clear Concept

INTERIOR BALLISTICS
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Knowledge of the forces responsible for propulsion of projectile within the bore of the barrel till the end of the projectile.

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Understanding pre-requires knowledge of:1Missile design & cycle of fire. 2Ammunition design. Missile design & cycle of fire Missile design:a- Portion containing mechanical device (not important). b- Barrel for jetting of the projectile (Important because it has relation to WOUND BALLISTICS).

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FIREARM DESIGN
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Grip Barrel

Action

Barrel

Action

Grip or But Stock


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FIREARMS

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Colt 45

Luger 9mm

9 mm Thompson

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5.7 mm

CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS
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Classified on the basis of Barrel

Barrel

Steel tube for jetting of the projectile. Two ends --Breach & Muzzle end Internal diameter of the barrel. May be SMOOTH or RIFLED
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Bore

CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS

Smooth Bored

Rifled

Choked Non choked

Short Barrel Long Barrel

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Barrel

Rifling

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CHOKING OF SMOOTH BORE FIREARM


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18.80 mm

18.40 mm

Cylindrical portion

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TYPES OF CHOKING OF BARREL OF SHOT GUN


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CHOKE

FULL CHOKE MODIFIED CHOKE IMPROVED CYLINDER CYLINDER

PERCENTAGE OF PELLETS AT 40 YARDS IN 30 INCH CIRCLE 65 - 75 45 - 55 35 - 45


25 - 35

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Cycle of fire:- Three stages: iCartridge feeding and chambering. iiStriking of fire iiiExtraction of fire cartridge.

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AMMUNITION DESIGN
PROJECTILE CONSISTS OF:-

Cartridge Case Primer Powder charge (Black or Smokeless) Plastic Wad Shot charge (Bullet or Lead shots)

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C A R T R I D G E

B U L L E T

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CARTRIDGE CASE
Function: expands and seals chamber against rearward escape of gases. Composition: usually brass (70% copper 30% zinc); also plastic and paper in shotgun shell tubes.
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Shape:

(a) straight ("always" pistol ammunition) (b) bottleneck ("always" rifle ammunition) (c) tapered ("obsolete").

Extractor flange: configuration at base; rimmed, semi-rimmed, rimless ,belted, rebated.


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Headstamp: manufacturers identifiction imprinted or embossed on cartridge case.

CARTRIDGE CASE
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I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

Cartridge cases (outer covering of the cartridge) are made up of Cardboard & plastic. Bullet cases are made of brass (70% copper and 30% zinc). A few have a nickel coating. Primer cases are of similar composition (Cu-Zn). Bullet cores are most often lead and antimony, with a very few having a ferrous alloy core. Bullet jackets are usually brass (90% copper with 10% zinc), but some are a ferrous alloy and some are aluminum. Some bullet coatings may also contain nickel (Ravreby, 1982) 21

FUNCTIONS OF CARTRIDGE CASE


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CONTAINS AND KEEPS THE INNER CONTENTS IN POSITION PREVENTS THE BACK ESCAPE OF GASES PROTECTION TO THE CONTENTS TYPES OF CARTRIDGE CASES Rimmed, Semi rimmed, Rimless, Rebated, Belted CSAELESS CARTRIDGE

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PRIMER
The major primer elements are Lead styphnate(Pb), Barium nitrate (Ba), or a Antimony sulphide(Sb). Usually, all three are present. Less common elements include Aluminum (Al), Sulfur (S), Tin (Sn), Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K), Chlorine (Cl), or Silicon (Si). Primer elements may be easier to detect in residues because they do not get as hot as the powder, and compounds (not just elements) may be detectable. (Tassa et al, 1982b)
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Function:

explodes on compression igniting the propellant.


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Location: (a) centrefire. Centrally placed primer assembly comprising primer cup (struck by firing pin), primer, anvil with flash holes. Boxer design (USA) or Berdan design (Europe). (b) rimfire. No primer assembly. Primer spun into rim of cartridge case (rim struck by firing pin) and in contact with propellant.

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VARIOUS TYPES OF AMMUNITION


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POWDER CHARGE

Modern gunpowder, or "smokeless" powder, can contain up to 23 organic compounds (FBI study) Nitrocellulose is virtually always present, along with other compounds containing nitrate or nitrogen. One of these compounds, diphenylamine (used as a stabilizer in the powder), can be detected using reagents containing sulfuric acid. (Maloney et al, 1982). Modern gun powders are also described as "single-base" when the basic ingredient is nitrocellulose and as "double-base" when there is additionally 1 to 40% nitroglycerine added. If nitroguanidine it is Triple base. Hardy and Chera (1979) describe a method to differentiate them using a mass spectrometer .

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BLACK GUN POWDER


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POTASSIUM NITRATE OR SALT PETER

75%

CHARCOAL SULPHUR

15% 10%

Charcoal is the fuel, potassium nitrate the oxygen supplier gives the mixture more density and makes it more readily ignitable

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PROPELLANT Function: burns to produce large volumes of gases under pressure. Shape: sheets of smokeless powder cut into disc, flake or cylinder shapes. Alternatively produced as ball and flattened ball smokeless powder (Winchester) which may be coated with silver-black graphite.
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CHAIN OF EVENTS
Strike Primer ignites Powder charge burns Temperature increases Gases produce Chamber pressure increases Bullet/Shot charge moves Exit of bullet Chamber pressure zero
Gases produced: Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide Nitrogen, Sulphurated hydrogen
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CHAMBER PRESSURE:iRevolver:- 4 tons iiPistol:6 tons iii- Rifle:20 tons Bullet:Forward & rotational motion. Shot charge:Forward movement.

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EXTERIOR BALLISTICS
Knowledge of forces acting on the shot while it leaves the barrel till it reaches the target
Interactions of forces:1- Forces originating from the bullet motion
a- Velocity:i- Forward (Rate of motion (speed) and Direction ii- Rotational :- It varies (length of the barrel) b- Velocity of bullet at the muzzle end for various firearms:i- Revolver:- 600 900ft/sec ii- Pistol:1200 1440 ft/sec iii- Rifle:2000 3500 ft/sec
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2- Forces present in the medium


a- Air resistance b- Gravity
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FORCES ORIGINATING FROM THE PROJECTILE


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Velocity
1- Speed or Rate of motion also called Muzzle velocity

Rifles upto 2000 3000 fps

2- Direction of motion
Forward motion Also Rotational motion in bullets due to rifling

Bullets do not typically follow a straight line to the target. Rotational forces are in effect that keep 32 the bullet off a straight axis of flight.

DEFINITIONS
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YAW: is the oscillation around the long axix of the bullet. PRECESSION: is a circular Yawabout the center of gravity which takes the shape of a decreasing spiral. Nutation: is a rotational movement in a small circle which forms a rosette pattern like a spinning top.

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FORCES PRESENT IN THE MEDIUM


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1- Air resistance 2- Gravity

Projectile Follows..

Curved path

Trajectory of bullet

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TRAJECTORY OF BULLET

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TAIL WAG PHENOMENON


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Tail wag

Inside barrel projectile is supported by walls of barrel Entering new medium loses balance due to air resistance & force of gravity Regains balance after covering some distance

Initial tail wag

Terminal tail wag

Intermediate tail wag


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BULLET THROUGH A GLASS


Intermediate tail wag Secondary misslies
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TAIL WAG PHENOMENON


FOR PISTOL UP TO 60 YARDS FOR RIFLE UP TO 200 YARDS

Medicolegal importance

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Atypical firearm entry wounds

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TERMINAL / WOUND BALLISTICS

It is concerned with the effect of bullet on the target at impact until it comes to rest by Naseeb R. Awan

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Mechanism of Wound production


Laceration & Crushing Shock waves Cavitation

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MECHANISM OF WOUND PRODUCTION


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INTERACTION BETWEEN THE FIRE BLAST AND PART STRUCK FORCES IN THE FIRE - BLAST PROJECTILE & ITS DIAMETER SHAPE WEIGHT RIGIDITY TERMINAL VELOCITY (MOST IMPORTANT)

FACTORS IN THE PART STRUCK RESISTANCE OF THE TISSUE DEPENDS UPON NATURE, DESIGN & DENSITY

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LACERATION & CRUSHING


Kinematics is the science of motion. In gunshot
wounds we can use this to determine the extent of injury from the forces and motion involved.

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Velocity is a key factor to the overall extent of gunshot wounds According to the kinetic energy equation: (kinetic energy = mass/ 2 x velocity2) Doubling the mass doubles the energy, however doubling the velocity quadruples the energy Therefore a small-caliber bullet traveling at high speed can produce a more extensive injury than larger caliber 41 bullet traveling at a lower speed

LACERATION & CRUSHING


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. PRODUCED BY THE DIRECT EFFECT OF BULLET

1- Missile velocity 2- Shape & composition of projectile or Frontal area 3- Angle of impact 4- Flight characteristics as yaw, tumbling & nutation 5- Fragmentation
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LOW VELOCITY BULLET


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a. b.

c. d. e. f. g. h.

i.

PART STRUCK SOFT AND ELASTIC TISSUE PUSHES & STRETCHES THE SKIN & UNDERLYING TISSUE. ROTATES UPON ITS AXIS INDENTATION IS PRODUCED PERFORATION OF TISSUE PASSAGE OF BULLET ENERGY OF BULLET RADIATES LATERALLY DAMAGE PROPORTIONATE TO DIAMETER OF THE BULLET REPRESENTED BY THE PATH OR TRACK OF THE BULLET

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SHOCK WAVES
I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

DEMONSTRATED ONLY BY HIGH SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY OR RADIOGRAPHY IN HIGH VELOCITY BULLETS TRACK IS FORCED THROGH SOLID TISSUE. MEDIUM IS COMPRESSED BY MISSILE IN FRONT OF IT REGION OF COMPRESSION MOVES AS A SHOCK WAVE OF SPHERICAL FORM, 4800/FT/S CHANGES OF PRESSURE REMAINS FOR A MILLIONTH OF SECOND BUT MAY REACH PEAK VALUE UP TO 100atm.

VII. VIII. IX.

So damage at a distance from wound track. Solid tissues like Muscle, Liver, Spleen & brain are very susceptible. Conducted particularly well along tube filled tubes like arteries & veins to cause damage at a distance.

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Shock Waves

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SHOCK WAVES
. GENERATED IN TISSUES BY HIGH VELOCITY BULLETS, GREATER THAN 2,500/FEET/SEC

Last only for 15-25 microseconds Are of high energy creating over 1000 lbs/sq inch of pressure Easily rupture gas filled organs

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TYPES OF CAVITATIONS
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Temporary: Permanent:

High velocity missile Main destructive effect Release of energy, absorbed by the local tissue. Accelerated violently forwards & outwards. Continue to move even after passage of missile. A large cavity is produced (temporary cavity), reaches its maximum size, have sub atmospheric pressure, collapses in a pulsatile fashion and permanent cavity left. Soft tissues pulped, blood vessels disrupted and bone may be shattered.

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CAVITATION
. CREATED BY THE BULLETS TRAVELLING AT SPEEDS > 1000 FT/SEC

Size & shape depends upon the capacity of the bullet to disperse energy in the surrounding tissues Tissues are moved forward & laterally away from the bullet Continues for few milliseconds after bullet has passed This creates a cavity which sucks air in from entry & exit wounds & may be 30 times more in diameter than that of the bullet Permanent cavity if exists is much smaller than the temporary cavity

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M/L IMPORTANCE OF WOUND BALLISTICS


1- Recognition of Entry & Exit wounds 2- Distance of Fire 3- Direction of fire & Wound track 4- Relative position of weapon/victim & angle of fire 5- Cause of death 6- Manner of death 7- Identification of firearm

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COMPONENTS OF A SHOT RESPONSIBLE FOR DAMAGE


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1- Shot charge (bullet/pallet) 2- Flame & heat 3- Hot explosive gases 4- Smoke 5- Wad 6- Unburnt gun powder 7- Grease from the barrel
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I.
II.

a. b.

All these elements affect: Body of the victim as signs & symptoms At the place of strike or target produce characteristic changes Result is FIREARM WOUND COMPLEX This has two components: Wounding component Non wounding component

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1.
2. 3. 4.

Firearm-wound complex has four parts: An entry wound A track with its direction Place of resting of bullet or shot-charge. Exit wound

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ENTRY WOUND
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SINGLE HOLE: SIZE : depends upon skin elasticity, tail wag, explosive blast effect of gases so either proportionate to the diameter of the bullet, SMALLER or much larger having STELLATE SHAPE. SHAPE: depending upon the angle of firearm with the target. Circular, Oval, Elliptical, An elongated furrow. Inverted margins. May be everted. Collar of abrasion: shape depends upon the angle of firearm with the target.

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FLAME

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BURNING

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SMOKE

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Carbon particles scattered on HISTOLOGICAL examination


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Burning: Few inches in case of revolver & one foot in case of a Shotgun by Naseeb R. Awan

Blackening: Absent after one yard by Naseeb R. Awan


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TATTOOING (DUE TO UNBURNT GUNPOWDER PARTICLES)


They pierce under the superficial skin layers causing punctate abrasions of smaller blood vessels under the skin
Beyond 2 yards, tattooing is not present
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by Naseeb R. Awan

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Un-burnt gunpowder particles pierce the skin while blood stains are washable
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Tattooing

Blood stains

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SKIN CHANGES
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Gross splitting: Seen in high velocity bullet & contact wound of low velocity bullet . Tail wag/range/gas penetration. BLOW BACK PHENOMENON Bruising (at or around entry wound due to general tissue trauma) MUZZLE IMPRINT, Gases of the blast ballooning & bruising the skin/Vital reaction / Inflammatory reaction Collar of Abrasion: Rub raw of the superficial skin layers while projectile enters the skin. More prominent in rifled firearms due to their rotational motion
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Tail wag phenomenon Medicolegal importance


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Atypical firearm entry wounds


Bigger entry wound X-shaped entry wound Key hole or slit like entry wound Multiple entry wounds of a single fire Skin deep / muscle deep wounds
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Key hole or Slit like entry wound

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Collar Of Abrasion

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CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARM RIFLED ENTRY


WOUND DEPENDING UPON DISTANCE/RANGE
Contact entry wound Close range: Up to 2 yards
Near distant: within six inches Intermediate range: 1 2 yards
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Distant range: Beyond 2 yards

Hard/Firm contact

Loose contact

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FEATURES OF ENTRY WOUND


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FIRM CONTACT

LOOSE CONTACT

Lacks exterior residue. No imprints of components of fire externally. Burning, blackening, tattooing present in the track or interior of wound or on intervening bone. Pinkish discoloration due to CoHb. Muzzle imprint on close examination. Entry wound of variable shape with collar of abrasion.

As small gap between body & weapon. Circular defect. Collar of abrasion. Circular soot material. Tattooing, blackening & burning in the wound track. No scorching, singeing externally. Muzzle imprint. Pinkish discoloration

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FEATURES OF ENTRY WOUND


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NEAR DISTANT

INTERMEDIATE RANGE

Barrel is held close to skin in the range of flame & smoke. Central defect. Collar of abrasion. Inverted margins. Burning, scorching, singeing, blackening & tattooing present.

Within 1 2 yard Hole Collar of abrasion. Inverted margins. Blackening fades. Tattooing present

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FEATURES OF ENTRY WOUND: DISTANT RANGE


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Hole Collar of Abrasion Grease collar inside the collar of abrasion also called smudge ring No flame & gun powder effect.

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CONTACT FIREARM ENTRY WOUND

Stellate Firearm wound


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Muzzle of firearm pressed hard on some hard bony area as forehead / skull Gases cant enter skull & escape from sides causing lacerations in the scalp Star shaped projections in scalp Components of shot present inside skull in the track

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CLOSE RANGE FIREARM ENTRY WOUND


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Examination of clothes is important Burning, blackening, tattooing present Collar of abrasion present Grease collar / Dirt collar may be present Margins may be inverted Wad maybe present in the track in case of smooth bored firearm

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SHOTGUN CARTRIDGE
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Construction:chamber primer/powder/wad/shot Shot types Bird, Buck, Slugs Pellets Rarely exit Variable factors Range Gauge Choke

HIGH ENERGY TRANSFER

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Plastic WAD struck with the wall

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FIREARM EXIT WOUND


There may be no exit wound May be multiple exit wounds of one entry wound due to Secondary missiles May be large typical exit wound with everted margins No close range characteristics Shored exit wound: Collar of abrasion present

Bullet through a glass


Intermediate Intermediatetail tail wag wag Secondary Secondary misslies misslies

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SHOT GUN WOUNDS


Contact shotgun wound are most destructive Bursting rupture of head is rule rather than exception Skull may be largely fragmented leading to Egg-shell fractures Scalp is extensively lacerated

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The unfavorable ballistic shape of shotgun pallets combined With lack of stabilizing spin, causes a rapid fall-off in velocity & Thus Kinetic energy by Naseeb R. Awan
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Contact Shotgun wound

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SHOTGUN ENTRY WOUND COMPLEX

Fanning phenomenon

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Pallets traveling in a single mass & wad getting behind

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Shot gun Firearm wounds

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Entry Wound By contact to 2 ft birdshot produces a single wound By 3 ft there will be Rat-hole type of entry wound By 4 ft scattered satellite pallet holes By 10 ft there is great variation in type of entry wound

The diameter of spread of pallets on body in inches is roughly equal to the distance from muzzle in yards Wad may travel upto 6 ft & may be found in track of injury within that distance Billiard Ball Ricochetting phenomenon: Important in giving distance of fire

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THIS COOKIE CUTTER TYPE WOUND SHOWS A FEW


SEPARATE PELLET INJURIES FORMING AS THE DISTANCE INCREASES. IS NOT A SUICIDE.
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THIS

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LOOSE CONTACT SHOTGUN WOUND AND A LARGER, MORE RAGGED EXIT WOUND.
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BILIARD BALL RICOCHETTING PHENOMENON

Misguides distance of fire

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IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
Beveling of skull bone

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Bone of skull is dipoc (has 2 layers). Table which is struck first by projectile is supported from below so has comparatively small circular hole & clean margins. Table which is 2nd to be struck has no support so has a bigger irregular hole & beveled margins.
M/L importance Gives direction of fire
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Beveled margins

Blackening in the track

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IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
Birdshot Buckshot Dustshot Blank ammunition Dum dum bullets

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Size of pallet is 2-9 Pallets larger than size 9 Pallets smaller in size Only powder no projectile present Either non-jacketed or partially jacketed. They may expand or flatten on impact thus increasing energy dissipation & tissue destruction
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IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
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Ballistic coefficient Fragmentation Embolised bullets

Efficiency of a bullet in overcoming air resistance Breaking up of a jacketed bullet through some bone or non-jacketed bullet through soft tissues Bullet gains access to blood circulation & carried away to distant location

Swallowed bullets
Tandem bullets

Bullet that enters GI tract & carried away by peristalsis


Bullets remaining in barrel due to defect & then come out subsequently one after the other Bullet which deviates from its course by striking an intermediate object
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Ricochetted bullet

DUM-DUM BULLET

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A hollow point is an expanding bullet that has a pit or hollowed out shape in its tip, generally intended to cause the bullet to expand upon entering a target in order to decrease penetration and disrupt more tissue as it travels through the target. It is also used for controlled penetration, where overpenetration could cause collateral damage (such as on an aircraft).

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TANDEM BULLET
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Tandem cartridge if used could result in multiple entrance wounds in a single fire. If the first bullet fails to leave the barrel and is ejected by the subsequent fired bullets. The bullets are ejected one before the other and are called as tandem bullets.

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KENNEDY PHENOMENON
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Surgical alteration or suturing of gunshot wounds creates problem. in this situation the evaluation of the wound whether it was an entrance or exit wound becomes difficult. This phenomenon is called as Kennedy phenomenon.

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BILLIARD BALL RECHOCHETTING

Diagnosing long-range injury based on the pattern of pellet spread is difficult. When shotgun pellets are tightly clustered or widely spread out, close-range injury or long-range injury (respectively) is usually suspected. However, in close-range injuries, the billiardball effect may cause considerable pellet spread.16 When the tightly clustered group of shot at close range contacts the skin, the pellets at the front of the group are slowed. The pellets behind them in the group strike the pellets in front, with an effect like a billiard-ball break. This causes much more pellet spread in tissue than would be expected at close range. On radiographs, particularly in trunk wounds, this effect can simulate the pellet spread of a longer-range injury.16 Correlate the physical examination with the radiologic findings. If there is only one entrance wound hole, it is a close-range injury. If the distribution of the multiple skin entrance wounds is the same as the pellet spread on the radiograph, the injury occurred at longer range.

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GUN SHOT WOUND IN MOUTH


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Gun Shot Wound in mouth


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Multiple Firearm Wounds

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SHOTGUN PELLETS 1
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SHOTGUN PELLETS 2

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GUN SHOT WOUND ON HEAD


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GROIN GUN SHOT WOUND


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GROIN GUN SHOT WOUND


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GUN SHOT WOUND ON HAND


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GUN SHOT WOUND ON HAND IN X-RAY


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Gun Shot Wound on shoulder


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Firearm wounds are one type of wounds you may never get hold on. Even 1000th case of your professional life will bring another chapter of mystery & new learning

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THANKYOU !

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