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HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

Unit-I HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

By K Eugine Raj AP/SCAD Engg College

FRAME RELAY NETWORKS


Switching

in the data communication physical layer is mainly done by three category. Circuit switching is used in public telephone networks and is the basis for private networks. Packet switching was designed to provide a more efficient circuit switching for bursty data traffic.

SIMPLE SWITCHING NETWORK

CIRCUIT-SWITCHING NETWORKS

CIRCUIT ESTABLISHMENT

PACKET-SWITCHING PRINCIPLES

PACKET SWITCHING: DATAGRAM APPROACH

PACKET SWITCHING: DATAGRAM APPROACH

PACKET SWITCHING: DATAGRAM APPROACH

PACKET SWITCHING: VIRTUAL-CIRCUIT APPROACH

PACKET SWITCHING: VIRTUAL-CIRCUIT APPROACH

X.25
X.25

is an ITU-T standard that specifies an interface between a host system and a packet-switching network.

FRAME RELAY
Frame

relay is designed to provide a more efficient transmission scheme than X.25. The standards for frame relay entered in the market before ATM had arrived. The traditional approach to packet switching makes use of X.25.

Frame

relay is designed to eliminate much of the overhead that X.25 imposes on end user systems and on the packet-switching network. Differences between frame relay and a conventional X.25 packet-switching service are. Call control signaling Multiplexing and switching of logical connections takes place at layer 2 instead of layer 3, eliminating one entire layer of processing No hop-by-hop flow control and error control

FRAME RELAY USER-NETWORK INTERFACE PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE

CONTROL PLANE
It

offers similar service to that of a common channel signaling for circuit-switching services, in that a separate logical channel is used for control information. At the data link layer, LAPD (Q.921) is used to provide a reliable data link control service, with error control and flow control, between user (TE) and network (NT). This data link service is used for the exchange of Q.933 control signaling messages.

USER PLANE
For

the actual transfer of information between end users, the userplane protocol is LAPF (Link Access Procedure for Frame Mode Bearer Services), which is defined in Q.922.

USER DATA TRANSFER


The

operation of frame relay for user data transfer is best explained by considering the frame format, illustrated in Figure

ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE


ATM

is a streamlined packet transfer interface. ATM makes use of fixed-size packets, called cells. The use of a fixed size and fixed format results in an efficient scheme for transmission over high-speed networks. ATM provides both real-time and non-real-time services. An ATM based network can support a wide range of traffic, include synchronous TDM streams

ATM PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE

User

plane: Provides for user information transfer, along with associated controls (e.g., flow control, error control) Control plane: Performs call control and connection control functions Management plane: Includes plane management and layer management.

ATM LOGICAL CONNECTIONS

ATM LOGICAL CONNECTIONS


Logical

connections in ATM are referred to as virtual channel connections (VCCs). A VCC is set up between two end users through the network and a variable-rate, fullduplex flow of fixed-size cells is exchanged over the connection. For ATM, a second sublayer of processing has been introduced that deals with the concept of virtual path. A virtual path connection (VPC) is a bundle of VCCs that have the same end points.

ADVANTAGES
Simplified

network architecture Increased network performance and reliability Reduced processing and short connection setup time Enhanced network services

VIRTUAL CHANNEL CONNECTION USES


The

endpoints of a VCC may be end users, network entities, or an end user and a network entity. Between end users. Between an end user and a network entity Between two network entities

VIRTUAL PATH/VIRTUAL CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS


Quality

of service (QoS). Switched and semipermanent virtual channel connections. Cell sequence integrity. Traffic parameter negotiation and usage monitoring. Virtual channel identifier restriction within a VPC

ATM CELLS
The

asynchronous transfer mode makes use of fixed-size cells, consisting of a 5-octet header and a 48-octet information field. Advantages of using small, fixed-size cells are, First, the use of small cells may reduce queuing delay. Second, it appears that fixed-size cells can be switched more efficiently.

HEADER FORMAT
The

Generic Flow Control (GFC) field appear in the cell header at the usernetwork interface. Hence, it can be used for control of cell flow only at the local user-network interface. The Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) constitutes a routing field for the network. It is 8 bits at the user-network interface and 12 bits at the network-network interface.

The

Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) is used for routing to and from the end user. The Payload Type (PT) field indicates the type of information in the information Field. The Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit is used to provide guidance to the network in the event of congestion. The Header Error Control (HEC) field is used for both error control and synchronization, as explained subsequently.

ATM SERVICE CATEGORIES


An

ATM network is designed to be able to transfer many different types of traffic simultaneously, including real-time flows such as voice, video, and bursty TCP flows. Each data flow is handled within the network depends on the characteristics of the traffic flow and the requirements of the application.

ATM SERVICE CATEGORIES


Real-Time

Service Constant bit rate (CBR) Real-time variable bit rate (rt-VBR) Non-Real-Time Service Non-real-time variable bit rate (nrtVBR) Available bit rate (ABR) Unspecified bit rate (UBR) Guaranteed frame rate (GFR)

REAL-TIME SERVICES
In

real time applications a flow of information to a user that is intended to reproduce that flow at a source. For example, a user expects a flow of audio or video information. Constant Bit Rate (CBR) The CBR service is perhaps the simplest service to define. CBR is commonly used for uncompressed audio and video information.

CONSTANT BIT RATE


CBR

applications include Videoconferencing Interactive audio (e.g., telephony) Audio/video distribution (e.g., television, distance learning, pay-perview) Audio/video retrieval (e.g., video-ondemand, audio library)

REAL-TIME VARIABLE BIT RATE (RT-VBR)


The

rt-VBR category is intended for timesensitive applications. For example, the standard approach to video compression results in a sequence of image frames of varying sizes. Because real-time video requires a uniform frame transmission rate, the actual data rate varies. Statistically multiplex a number of connections over the same dedicated capacity

NON-REAL-TIME SERVICES
Non-real-time

services intended for applications have bursty traffic.

are that

NON-REAL-TIME VARIABLE BIT RATE (NRT-VBR)


For

some non-real-time applications, it is possible to characterize the expected traffic flow so that the network can provide substantially improved QoS in the areas of loss and delay. Such applications can use the nrt-VBR service. Examples include airline reservations, banking transactions, and process monitoring.

UNSPECIFIED BIT RATE (UBR)


At

any given time, a certain amount of the capacity of an ATM network is consumed in carrying CBR and the two types of VBR traffic. Additional capacity is available for one or both of the following reasons: (1) Not all of the total resources have been committed to CBR and VBR traffic, and (2) the bursty nature of VBR traffic means that at some times less than the committed capacity is being used.

All

of this unused capacity could be made available for the UBR service. This service is suitable for applications that can tolerate variable delays and some cell losses, which is typically true of TCP-based traffic. Examples of UBR applications include Text/data/image transfer, messaging, distribution, retrieval Remote terminal (e.g., telecommuting)

AVAILABLE BIT RATE (ABR)


To

improve the service provided to bursty sources that would otherwise use UBR, the ABR service has been defined. An application using ABR specifies a peak cell rate (PCR) that it will use and a minimum cell rate (MCR) that it requires.

GUARANTEED FRAME RATE (GFR)


The

most recent addition to the set of ATM service categories is GFR, which is designed specifically to support IP backbone subnetworks. GFR provides better service than UBR for frame-based traffic, including IP and Ethernet. A major goal of GFR is to optimize the handling of frame-based traffic that passes from a LAN through a router onto an ATM backbone network.

HIGH SPEED LANS


The

IEEE 802.3 standard, known as Ethernet, now encompasses data rates of 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps, and 10 Gbps. For the lower data rates, the CSMA/CD MAC protocol is used. For the 1-Gbps and 10-Gbps options, a switched technique is used.

ETHERNET
The

most widely used high-speed LANs today are based on Ethernet and were developed by the IEEE 802.3 standards committee.

IEEE 802.3 100-MBPS SPECIFICATIONS (FAST ETHERNET)


Fast

Ethernet refers to a set of specifications developed by the IEEE 802.3 committee to provide a low-cost, Ethernet-compatible LAN operating at 100 Mbps.

GIGABIT ETHERNET
The

strategy for Gigabit Ethernet is the same as that for Fast Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet retains the CSMA/CD protocol and Ethernet format of its 10-Mbps and 100Mbps predecessors. It is compatible with 100BASE-T and 10BASE-T, preserving a smooth migration path. As more organizations move to 100BASE-T, putting huge traffic loads on backbone networks, demand for Gigabit Ethernet has intensified.

10-GBPS ETHERNET
The

principle driving requirement for 10 Gigabit Ethernet is the increase in Internet and intranet traffic. A number of factors contribute to the explosive growth in both Internet and intranet traffic.

FIBRE CHANNEL
Fibre

Channel is designed to combine the best features of both technologies the simplicity and speed of channel communications with the flexibility and interconnectivity that characterize protocol-based network communications.

WIRELESS LANS
Wireless

LAN is one that makes use of a wireless transmission medium. Wireless LAN Applications LAN extension, cross building interconnect, nomadic access, and ad hoc networks.

IEEE 802.11 ARCHITECTURE AND SERVICES