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REACTIVE POWER

COMPENSATION
Prepared By :Shashikant ram EN 3rd year

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION DEFINITION NEED FOR REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION METHOD OF COMPENSATION TYPES OF COMPENSATION FIXED COMPENSATION vs. DYNAMIC COMPENSATION INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGNING RPC CAPACITOR IN RPC AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTION BENEFITS OF RPC CONCLUSION REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION
Major industrial loads e.g. induction motors, furnaces, transformers, etc. need reactive power for sustaining the magnetic field.As in case of induction machine the reactive power is needed just to create air gap magnetic field.Series inductance in transmission lines implies consumption of reactive power. Reactors, fluorescent lamps and all inductive circuits on the whole require a certain amount of reactive power to work. Thus reactive power is not delivered as effective mechanical power output of motor unlike the real power which is effectively converted as mechanical output.

DEFINITION:
Any device which is connected in shunt or series with the load and which is capable of supplying the reactive power demanded by the load is called a Reactive power compensation device.

NEED FOR REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION


The

power supplier charges penalty for excessive consumption of reactive power. Reduced energy losses make reactive power profitable. Additional machines are to be connected to already fully loaded substations, cables or transformer. The power transmission for a new plant can be planned more economically if power factor correction is taken into consideration.

METHODS OF COMPENSATION
There are two major ways of reactive compensation

1.

Shunt compensation:

Shunt capacitors are connected in parallel in the system and are used mainly for power factor improvement and in harmonic filters. It also boosts the voltage of the bus. This also known as load compensation.

2. SERIES COMPENSATION
Series

capacitor are connected in series in the lines and are used mainly for boosting the receiving end voltage, increase in transmission capacity and reduction in losses in the lines. It also improve power factor at the sending end of the line. Unlike shunt capacitor whose output depends on the voltage, the voltage improvement by series capacitors increase with increase in load current. In other word the series capacitor is a self regulating type. Series compensation is also known as live compensation.

TYPES OF COMPENSATION
There are different types of compensation:
(1)Individual

compensation: Advantage:-Additional control and protection equipments not required. Overcompensation are avoided.

limitation:-compensation value limited by the no load KVA of the motor. Risk of the high inrush currents due to parallel switching. Not feasible to design an effective harmonic filter.

2)Group

compensation: Advantage:-Proper protection scheme can be provided. It can be used as effective harmonic filters. limitation:-compensation value limited by the no load KVA of the motor. Risk of the high inrush currents due to parallel switching. Not feasible to design an effective harmonic filter. (3)Central compensation: Advantage:-This could be most economical. if single large bank has to be used for improvement of P.F. only to avoid the penalty Limitation:- Cannot unburden the transformer from reactive power load .Can not reduce system loss.

FIXED COMPENSATION VS DYNAMIC COMPENSATION


FIXED

COMPENSATION:-Here the reactive power fed by the capacitors to the system is fixed. These are basically breaker controlled capacitors and are used in system which has constant load having a set pattern of operation. DYNAMIC COMPENSATION:-Here the reactive power fed by the capacitors to the system is dynamic. This is done using thyristor controlled capacitors. These are used in systems where the loads are fluctuating in nature like arc furnace loads.

INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGNING R.P.C


SHUNT

COMPENSATION:1. System voltage with variation 2. System frequency with variation 3. Actual system fault level 4. Uncompensated power factor 5. Harmonic generating loads or harmonic current generated in the system SERIES COMPENSATION:1. Load details at each bus 2. Line parameters 3. Voltage improvement required 4. Maximum and Minimum load

CAPACITOR IN REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION


Capacitor

power When a capacitor connected across the load ,the capacitor supplies reactive power to the load, there by relieving the transmission network which can carry only the active power. As opposed to the rotating machines, the capacitor is a device with no moving parts, which generates reactive power. High voltage capacitors are built up a single phase capacitor units.

can be viewed as generator of reactive

AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTION(APFC)


If

the capacitor output is fixed when the load decreases, total load will be capacitive at low active load. Thus depending on the actual short circuit capacity of the bus, the additional reactive power will cause a rise in the voltage on that bus. In order to avoid the disadvantage ,plants with fluctuating loads are often provided with automatic regulation.

BENEFITS OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION


Better efficiency of power generation, transmission and distribution Improvement in voltage Reduced KVA demand Higher load capability. Reduced system losses.

The

figure show the relation between apparent (S), active (P), and reactive power (Q) at a certain power factor of the load. The load is uncompensated and if the conductor or the transformer is fully loaded the arc of the circle defines the maximum power output.

CONCLUSION
When

a capacitor connected across the load,the capacitor supplies reactive power to the load, thereby network carry only the active power. By reducing the negative impact of reactive power in high voltage AC networks, the capacity of transmission systems can be dramatically increased. This means greater reliability and better use of existing lines. RPC reduce energy loss.

REFERENCE

>Elements of power system analysis by


W.D.Stevenson,TMH >Element of power system by C.L.Wadhwa,NEW AGE

THANK YOU