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Components Of Engine

1 2 3 4 7 6 5

Main Part of Engine:1] Thermostat 2] Valve Housing Cover 3] Breather Cap 4] Valve seat 5] Intake Valve 6] Exhaust Valve 7] Push Rod 8] Cylinder head 9] Cylinder Sleeve 10] Crankcase 11] Piston 12] Valve Tappet 13] Camshaft 14]Crankshaft Flywheel 15] Crankshaft Rear oil seal 16] Clutch shaft pilot bearing 17] Crankcase Oil pan 18] Connecting rod 19] Crankshaft 20] Crankshaft Gear 21] Crankshaft front oil seal 22] Fan Belt 23] Water pump assembly 24] Lubrication oil Pump

Assembly Line - Challenges


It was a very challenging task to design a manufacturing process for four altogether different families of engines on a single line, as all individual families have 100% different components & assembly specs. The task called for conceptualizing and design of 1. Flexible conveyor 2. Flexible machines and equipments and

3. Flexible toolings at all assembly stations


4. Flexible testing fixtures Few examples of this are briefed in coming slides.

Common conveyor line for all models

Quick latching flexible indexing assembly fixture

Common special purpose cleaning machines

Flexible cleaning machines to manage four designs

Common special purpose cleaning

machines

Flexible cleaning machines to manage four designs

Assembly Design of machines and equipments Special purpose cleaning machines are designed to cater to multi models. The cleaning machine for NEF, Bp235 & Bp245 crankcases is common. This is achieved through multifixturing in each chamber. Similarly, cleaning for NEF, Bp235, Bp245 crankshafts and NEF & Bp245 cylinder heads is carried out in a single machine. As a result of this innovative design, cleaning of 8 critical components, spread over 3 families of engines, is carried out in only 2 machines.

Result
Only plant in M & M to assemble all four designs of FES engines on a single line.

Benefits in Assembly Shop


Total flexibility in the Set up Model wise In future also we can add new models Cleaning Machine wise- Four components on one Machine Torque wise DC nut runners can deliver variable torque. Testing Trolley wise Same trolley for all models saving Rs __ Test Bed wise Any model on any Test Bed Quality Lesser Touch points, Eddy Current Dynamometers (SFC), Consistent Truing by DC Nut Runners, Modified Water circuit in Testing eliminated the problem of Piston Seizure Accuracy Component assembly in correct orientation Cost Saving Rs 58.5 Lacs because of use of DC Nut Runners. Space reduction-By clubbing two components on one cleaning Machine All the Components on trolleys - Quick change over from one model to the other, Reduced fatigue Safety & Fatigue Reduction Incorporated through Poka Yoke, Conveyors, Semiautomatic Testing

What is engine?

It is a devise which converts heat energy into mechanical energy.


What is the various classification of engine? The automobile engines are classified as; Internal combustion engine External combustion engine

* Difference between Internal Combustion Engine and External Combustion Engine *


Sr. 1 External Combustion Engine * The combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine cylinder [ i.e. in Boiler ] Since the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine cylinder, therefore, these engine are smooth and silent running The working pressure and temperature inside the engine cylinder is low Because of low pressure and temperature ,ordinary alloys are used for the manufacturing of engine cylinder and its parts. A steam engine requirea a bioler and compoenent to transfer energy.thus it is heavy and comersome. the steam engine have efficiency of about 15-20 percent. it can not be started instantaneously. Internal Combustion Engine The combustion of fuel takes place inside the Engine Cylinder Since combustion of fuel takes place inside the Engine Cylinder , these engine are very noisy. The working pressure and temperature inside the cylinder is very high because of very high pressure and tempreture,special are used for manufacturing of engine cylinder its parts. An I C engine does require a bioler or other compoenent. Thus it is light and compact. The ic engine have efficiency of about 35-40 percent. it can be stared instantaneously

2 3

5 6 7

Diesel Engine Terms cont.


Power- is the work done at any given time, or the rate of doing work. Mechanical Efficiency- is the difference between indicated horsepower and brake horsepower. Scavenging- is the forced removal of burnt gases from the combustion chamber with fresh air. Valve Overlap- is when both the intake and exhaust valves are open at the same time.

Diesel Engine Terms


Bore- diameter of the cylinder Stroke- the distance the piston travels from BDC to TDC. Engine Displacement- the volume of air that is displaced by all the pistons during one upward stroke.

Is the amount of air displaced by the engine in one complete revolution. All cylinders being adds together. It is usual to assume that the engine with the greatest displacement is the larger engine (all other things being equal), Some manufacturers however attempt to obtain greater power from smaller engines by working them harder (increasing R.P.M. or injecting more fuel), with the usual result of reducing engine life

Diesel Engine Terms


Ratio- the relation between two numbers or two magnitudes of the same kind. Compression Ratio- the comparison of the cylinder volume when the piston is at BDC and the volume when the piston is at TDC. Torque- the twisting effort applied to the crankshaft at a ninety-degree angle.

Categories of Engines H= HORIZEN


H1 H2 H3

1] Regular Model

1] NEF [ New Engine Family ]

2] 235DI

2] Export model 3] USED IN USA & MILTARY

3] FOR HEAVY 3] AGRICULTURAL DUTY & DOMESTIC USE VEHICLE.

TYPE MODEL
AVL 255DI LS---------23.4 255DI SECTOR-----------23.4 265 ----------------------31 275DI REG-----------------36 275DI U/S------------------ 39 295DI TC--------35.5 475DI--------------40.5 575DI ----------------------44.5 575DI ROT-------47.5 575DI TC---------52 NEF 445DI--------------42 555DI--------------52 605DI ---------------------56.5 235 235DI-----------------23.8 245 245DI--------------26

HP

ACTIVITIES As Per Model


SR No. Station No. AVL Side & Main Oil Gallery Plug Fitment,Sleeve Insertion,Water Drain Plug,Water Pump and Starter Motor Stud Fitment. Sleeve Projection & Pressing,Expantion Plug Fit & Leak test,Cylinder Head Dowel Pin Fit. Crank Loading Bracket,Crank Case Indexing,Tappet Fitment,Removal of Bearing Cap 1 CC 1 235 BP Outer Cone & Cone Locking Plate Fitment,Starter stud fit.,Front Cover & Lube oil Pump Dowel Fitment. 245 BP Frt Cover Hollow Dowel Fit,Oil Gallarys Plug & FIP Plug Fit,Fip Stud & Rosr Dowel Fitment,

CC 2

Drain Plug, Piston Coling Jet, Pin GuideFitment Lube oil pipe and Stopper Screw & Side Oil Gallery Plug Fitment - M18. Crank Shaft Sub Assy &Rear bearing Hsg Fit.,Pre fitment of Cyl Head Liner Studs & Liner Sub Assy insertion & Sensor Fit. & Stud tightning.

Water Drain Plug, Sleeve Fitment, Frt Cover Stud *& Expansion Plug Fitment Crank Loading Bracket, Removal of Bearing Cap, Bearing Shell Fitment

M 1

M 2

Bearing Shell Fitment,Crank Shaft Fitment,Starter motor Fitment

Crank Shaft Fitment, & Top Intermediate Gear Pin Fitment In Crank Case

M 3

Piston Fitment,Front Plate Fitment,Cam Shaft Fitment,

Piston fitment, Idler Gear Fitment, Cam Shaft Lock nut Fit, Piston Sub assy Fit, Lube Sa Fitment,Cam Shaft Gear& Oil delivery pipe oil pump gear fit, Cam Shaft Sub Assy fit. adopter & Oil lubricating screw fitment

M 4

,Idler Gear Fitment,FIP Fitment,FIP Gear Fitment,Oil Ring Oil Guide, Governor Flange & ROSR Fip fitment, Fip Spigot Fitment, Fip Gear Pump Fitment Fitment Fitment, Rpm Adaptor Fitment Inspection Stage 1 Inspection Stage 1 Inspection Stage 2 Lube Oil Pump Dowel, Lube Oil Pump, Strainer Screw Connector, CRANK CASE MAIN OIL DELIVERY PIPE FITMENT

M 5

M 6

Front Cover Fitment,IPG Cover Fitment

Governor sleeve, Front Cover Sub Assy, Cam Shaft Bearing Flange Fitment .

M 7

,Pulley Fitment,ROSR Fitment,Water Pump

Oil Pump Strainer And Sheet Metal Cover, Crank Shaft Key, Crank Shaft Pully,Fuel ROSR Fitment. Front Cover FIT. Pump Base Plate,k Fuel Pump Tappet & Spill Cut Off Setting. Water Pump, Hyd. Pump Mtg. Dowel Fitment, Hyd. Pump Gear Sub Assy & Pully Fit. Timing Mark Plate Fitment, Oil pan fitment + Drain plug fitment, Fip Spill Cutoff & inspection cover fitment.

10

M 8

Gasket Chipping,Oil Pan Fitment

Full Load Setting Bracket, Fuel Pump, Bumping Clearence Checking

ACTIVITIES
SR No. Station No. 11 M 9 Spill Cut Off Push rod cover insertion, Cylinder head sub assly placement, Push rod cover gasket & bolt prefit Push rod cover bolt tightening, Cylinder head nut placement & tightening, Hose clip, Intake Manifold tightening, Tappet Setting. Decomp Setting, Governer Spring Housing & Governor Lever With Control Rod & Rocker Cover, Inspection Cover, Hour Meter Sub Assy Fitment Flywheel Fitment. Pully nut torquing AVL 235 BP

12

M 10

Cylinder Head Placement & Tortquing

13

M 11

Tappet Setting

14

M 12

Belt Tension, Exhaust Mfd, Alt Bkt . Spill Pipe & HP Pipe Fitment

15

M 13

Flywheel Fitment & Pully Torquing

16

M 14

Engine Testing Bracket Fitment, Engine Loading on next conveyor.

Engine Testing Bracket Fitment, Engine Loading on next conveyor. Engine No Punching. & Tappet Cover Fitment. LPP & HPP Fit. Blower Support Bkt Alt Bkt, Lower Housing Fitment. Blower Assembly Oil Filter, Exhaust Manifold, Starter motor, Alternator Fitment & Belt Tension.

17

D 1

Engine No Punching. & Tappet Cover Fitment

18

D 2

LPP Fitment

19

D 3

Complete Fitment Back.

20

D 4

Inspection Stage 2

Inspection Stage 2

ACTIVITIES As Per Model


SR No. Station No. AVL 235 BP 245 BP 21 D5

22

D6

23

Sub Assly Piston Sub Assly CHSA 1 Sub Assly ( Valve Insertion, Oin shim Pressing, & Valve Collet Or Valve Lock Fitment) CHSA 2 Sub Assly (Valve Leak testing, injector fitment, rocker arm stud fitment.) Sub Assly CHSA 3 ( intake manifold & Thermostate housing Sub Assy Fitment)

Piston Sub Assly

Piston Sub Assly

24

CHSA 1

CHSA 1

25

CHSA 2

CHSA 2

26

CHSA 3

CHSA 3

27

Sub Assly Front Cover, Crank Shaft, Stainer, Rosr,

Front Cover, Crank Shaft, Oil Pump, Rosr, Main Bearing Housing, Cam Shaft. Governer Housing, Governer, Governer Sleeve, Piston Hour Meter Sub Assy. Blower. Cr. Case SPM ( Commen For 245 & NEF )

Front Cover, Crank Shaft, Rosr, Cam Shaft,

28

Sub Assly Piston Ring, FIP Adapter Plate, Cam Shaft, Idler Cleaning M/C Cleaning M/C Cleaning M/C Cleaning M/C

Idler, Hydrolic Gear, Piston

29

Cr. Case SPM

Cr. Case SPM

30

Cy. Head SPM GPCM Genral Purpose Cleaning Machine For All Model ( Avl, 235, 245, Nef ) Crank Shaft Cleaning SPM

Cy. Head SPM

Cy. Head SPM

31

GPCM GPCM Genral Purpose Cleaning Machine For All Genral Purpose Cleaning Machine For All Model Model ( Avl, 235, 245, Nef ) ( Avl, 235, 245, Nef ) Crank Shaft Cleaning SPM Crank Shaft Cleaning SPM

32

Engine Specifications
MDI Nos. Stroke Engine Liner TDC to Model Bore ID BDC CC [Cubic capacity] Powe Power Rated r in in KW RPM HP Injection timing +/- 1 Oil in oil deg before sump TDC 12 2.5 Liter

1365

255DI LS 88.9mm

110mm

1.36 ltrs

16kw

21

2400

1785 1815

265DI 365DI

88.9mm

96mm

1.788 ltrs 1.810 ltrs

30kw 24.3kw 28.7kw 30kw 32.8kw

31 33 38 40 44 36 50

2300 2300 2600 2300 2300 2300 2600

20 20 17 20 15 15 17

5.8 Liter 5.8 Liter 5.8 Liter 7.6 Liter 7.6 Liter 5.8 Liter 7.6 Liter

88.9mm 97.2mm

1895B 275U/S 88.9mm 101.6mm 1.892 ltrs 2385 2500 1895 475DI 575DI 88.9mm 96mm 2.384 ltrs

88.9mm 101.6mm 2.523 ltrs

B275DI 88.9mm 101.6mm 1.8919 ltrs 26.5kw 88.9mm 101.6mm 2.523 ltrs 37kw

3000B 585DI

GENERAL ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS


NAME OF ENGINE Bore / Stroke (mm) Capacity CC Max. Horse Power HP Max.Torque Kg-m Compression ratio Cylinder arrangement Type of operation Firing order Piston Piston pin Cylinder liners Cylinder head Crank shaft Timing Camshaft Valves Cylinder Block Cooling Lubrication Oil filter element Fuel Injection Wt.of engine (Dry) (For ref.)

Inline 4 stroke 1-3-4-2 no. 1 on flywheel side Light alloy (Aluminium) Full floting, Secured by means of circlips Replaceable (wet type) Light alloy (Aluminium) 5 main bearing , Induction Hardened By gears Located laterally in cylinder block Over head rocker operated Made of Cast Iron Centrifugal Water Pump Forced feed type Cartridge with paper element Rotary pump (Lucas/MICO)

MAHINDRA AND MAHINDRA LTD. IGATPURI PLANT

GENERAL ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS


NAME OF ENGINE XDP 4.90 C 90 x 83 Bore / Stroke (mm) 2112 Capacity CC Max. Horse Power HP 62.0 @ 4500 RPM Max.Torque Kg-m Compression ratio Cylinder arrangement Type of operation Firing order Piston Piston pin Cylinder liners Cylinder head Crank shaft Timing Camshaft Valves Cylinder Block Cooling Lubrication Oil filter element Fuel Injection Wt.of engine (Dry) (For ref.) 12.3 @ 2000 RPM 22.4:1 Inline XD3P - 4000 RPM 94 x 90 2498 70.3 @ 4000 RPM (52.5 Kw) 12.9 Kg.m (128 Nm) at 2000 rpm 23:1 Inline XD3P - 4500 RPM 94 x 90 2498 76 @ 4500 RPM (56 Kw) P 2150 90 x 83 2112 94 @ 4500 RPM (68 Kw) MDI 3200A 88.89 x 101.6 2523 54.5 @ 3200 (40kw) net 16.5 kg-m (162 Nm) at 1500 rpm net 17:1 Inline 4 stroke 1-3-4-2 from pulley side Light alloy (Aluminium) NEF - NA (LCV) 94 X 94 2609 68 @ 3600 RPM (50 Kw) 16.4 Kg.m (161 Nm) at 1800 rpm 18.7:1 Inline NEF - TCI ( Scorpio ) 94 X 94 2609 108 @ 3800 RPM (79 Kw) 26.5 Kg.m (260 Nm) at 1800 rpm 18.5:1 Inline

15.3 Kg.m (150 Nm) at 2000 17.5 Kg.m (172 Nm) at rpm 2000 rpm 23:1 8.6:1 Inline Inline

4 stroke 4 stroke 4 stroke 4 stroke 1-3-4-2 no. 1 on flywheel 1-3-4-2 no. 1 on flywheel 1-3-4-2 no. 1 on flywheel 1-3-4-2 no. 1 on flywheel side side side side Light alloy (Aluminium) Light alloy (Aluminium) Light alloy (Aluminium) Light alloy (Aluminium)

4 stroke 4 stroke 1-3-4-2 no. 1 on fan 1-3-4-2 no. 1 on fan side side Light alloy (Aluminium) Light alloy (Aluminium)

Full floting, Secured by Full floting, Secured by Full floting, Secured by Full floting, Secured by Full floting, Secured by Full floting, Secured by Full floting, Secured by means of circlips means of circlips means of circlips means of circlips means of circlips means of circlips means of circlips Replaceable (wet type) Replaceable (wet type) Replaceable (wet type) Replaceable (wet type) Replaceable (wet type) Integral Integral Light alloy (Aluminium) Light alloy (Aluminium) Light alloy (Aluminium) Light alloy (Aluminium) Cast Iron ( double Cast Iron ( double deck ) Cast iron deck) 5 main bearing , Induction 5 main bearing , Induction 5 main bearing , Induction 5 main bearing , Induction 5 main bearing , Induction 5 main bearing , 5 main bearing , Hardened Hardened Hardened Hardened Hardened Induction Hardened Induction Hardened Chain drive Chain drive By gears By gears By gears By gears By gears Located laterally in cylinder Located laterally in cylinder Located laterally in cylinder Located laterally in cylinder Located laterally in cylinder Located laterally in Located laterally in block block block block block cylinder block cylinder block Over head rocker operated Over head rocker operated Over head rocker operated Over head rocker operated Over head rocker Over head rocker Rocker operated operated operated Made of Cast Iron Made of Cast Iron Made of Cast Iron Made of Cast Iron Made of Cast Iron Made of Cast Iron Made of Cast Iron Centrifugal Water Pump Centrifugal Water Pump Centrifugal Water Pump Centrifugal Water Pump Centrifugal Water Pump Centrifugal Water Centrifugal Water Pump Pump Forced feed type Forced feed type Forced feed type Forced feed type Forced feed type Forced feed type Forced feed type Cartridge with paper element Cartridge with paper Cartridge with paper element Cartridge with paper Cartridge with paper Cartridge with paper Cartridge with paper element element element element element Rotary pump (Lucas/MICO) Rotary pump (Lucas/MICO) Rotary pump (Lucas/MICO) Carburattor / Spark Plug Rotary pump (MICO) Rotary pump ( Lucas ) Rotary pump ( MICO ) 184Kg 200 Kg 200 Kg 184Kg 260Kg 270 Kg 280 Kg

How HP increases

As soon as Cubic Capacity [ CC ]

Increases Horse-power

Deference between Long stroke Engine & Regular Engine *

Long stroke Engine


Sr. Components

Regular Engine LS Size Differences

Crankshaft throw

55 mm

50.8 mm

Big

4.2 mm

Conrod CD

173.60mm

177.8

Small

4.2 mm

Crankcase sleeve [Liner ]

181mm

173mm

Big

8mm

Piston stroke from TDC to BDC

110 mm

101.6mm

Big

8.4 mm

Difference between Up-speed 3DI and Regular 3DI


Engine Specifications
MDI Nos. Engine Liner Stroke TDC Model Bore ID to BDC CC [Cubic capacity] Powe Power Rated r in in KW RPM HP Injection Oil in oil timing +/- 1 sump deg at TDC

1785

265DI

88.9mm

96mm

1.788 ltrs

30kw

31

2300

20

5.8 Liter

1815

365DI

88.9mm

97.2mm

1.810 ltrs

24.3kw

33

2300

20

5.8 Liter

1895B 275U/S 88.9mm

101.6mm

1.892 ltrs

28.7kw

38

2600

17

5.8 Liter

Specifications For Tractors Assembled at Nagpur


Model: Tractor Series: Tractor Feature: Colour: 255DIYU
BLM Yuvraj Chassis & Sheet metal - Red. Rim - Off white

265DIBP
NGH Bhoomiputra Chassis & Sheet metal Red. Rim Off white

265DIOR
NX Bhoomiputra for Orc hard Chassis & Sheet metal Red. Rim Off white

265DIBIC
NV Sarpanc h Chassis & Sheet metal - Red. Rim - Red

275DIBP
NDH Bhoomiputra Chassis & Sheet metal Red. Rim Off white

275DITUBP
NEH Bhoomiputra Chassis & Sheet metal Red. Rim Off white

275DIBIC
NY/NYA Sarpanc h Chassis & Sheet metal - Red. Rim - Red

365DIBP
NZ Bhoomiputra Chassis & Sheet metal Red. Rim Off white

Engine: HP Rated RPM Cubic capacity:(cm3) Bore Stroke Type Oil Sump Capacity Oil Filter Type Transmission: Series: Bull pinion/gear ratio: Diff Lock Pedal type: Shifter Cover: Clutch Housing: Rear Axle Assembly: VTU Main Line Components Clutch plate: Clutch Cover: Front Axle: Foot Plate: Clutch Pedal: Air Cleaner: Steering Gear: Battery tray & cover: Water Seperator: Driver seat: Electricals: Wiring Harness: Plough Lamp: P&T and Rear Lamps: Instrument panel: Head Lamp:

25 2400 1368 88.9mm Long 4 L Spinon

30 2300 1788 88.9mm Short 7 L Spinon

30 2300 1788 88.9mm Short 7 L Spinon

30 2300 1788 88.9mm Short 7 L Spinon

39 2600 2047 88.9mm Ups 7 L Spinon

39 2600 2047 88.9mm Ups 7 L Spinon

39 2600 2047 88.9mm Ups 7 L Spinon

36 2300 1810 88.9mm Dec k lifted 7 L Spinon

M 16/67 Straight Double Bend Regular Regular 40 HP - H2


0

P 13/48
0

P 13/48
0

D 13/48 63 bend with Flat foot rest Double Bend Integral Regular 40 HP - H2
0

P 13/48
0

T 15/68
0

D 13/48 63 bend with Flat foot rest Double Bend Integral Regular 40 HP - H2

N 13/48 Straight Double Bend Regular Regular 40 HP - H2

63 bend with 63 bend with thic k foot rest thic k foot rest Double Bend Regular Regular 40 HP - H2 Double Bend Regular Regular 40 HP - H2

63 bend with 63 bend with Flat foot rest Flat foot rest Double Bend Regular Regular 40 HP - H2 Double Bend Regular Regular 40 HP - H2

11" 5.4o 11" 5.4o 11" 5.4o progressive progressive progressive 10" 11" 11" 11" With Welded With Cast Iron With Cast Iron With Cast Iron support & iron support & iron support & iron support & iron ore insert ore insert. ore insert. ore insert. Raised foot Raised foot Lower foot plate plate plate Raised foot plate Bend- Push Bend- Push Straight type type Bend- Push type Oil bath & 3 Layer- 2 wire mesh 10" 51o Not fitted Fix small pan 5 piec e w/o panel Round 51o Fitted Fix small pan 5 piec e with panel Round

11" 5.4o Valeo 11" With Cast Iron support & iron ore insert. Raised foot plate Bend- Push type layers, 1 paper

11" 5.4o 11" 5.4o Valeo 11" 5.4o Valeo progressive 11" 11" 11" With Cast Iron With Cast Iron With Cast Iron support & iron support & iron support & iron ore insert. ore insert. ore insert. Raised foot Lower Foot plate Raised foot plate plate Bend- Push type Bend- Push type Straight element layer. 63o Fitted Sliding 5 piec e w/o panel Flat 51o Not Fitted Fix small pan 5 piec e with panel Round

51o 63o 51o 51o With pivot mounting arrangement for battery c over. Fitted Fitted Fitted Fitted Fix small pan Sliding Fix small pan Fix small pan 5 piec e with 5 piec e w/o panel panel Flat Flat On separate brac ket Plastic Body 4 meter panel Metal panel With harness separate c luster Halogen bulb lamp fit in Halogen bulb frame lamp 5 piec e with panel Round Plastic Body 4 meter panel With harness Halogen bulb lamp 5 piec e with panel Round

Metal Body Plastic Body Plastic Panel 4 meter panel separate c luster With harness Non Halogen bulb Non Halogen bulb

Plastic Body Plastic Body Metal body 4 meter panel Metal panel 3 meter panel With harness separate c luster With harness Halogen bulb lamp Halogen bulb lamp non halogen bulb lamp

Total Components of the following engines as per BOM :Engines---------Components 2DI--------------221 3DI--------------221 4DI--------------226 235DI-----------283 245DI-----------258

Crankcase

Cylinderhead

1] Suction Stroke-Inlet Valve opens

2] Compression Stroke-Both Valve remains closed

Cylinder head

3] Power Stroke/ Expansion stroke Both valve remains closed

4] Exhaust strokeExhaust Valve Opens

Engine start Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

1.

SUCTION STROKE :

At the start of Suction Stroke, piston is at TDC (Top Dead Centre), when we rotate the crankshaft, piston moves from TDC to BDC (Bottom Dead Centre). As soon as piston moves toward BDC, vacuum is created inside the cylinder. In order to compensate this vacuum air is sucked from atmosphere through Air cleaner.

1] Suction Stroke-Inlet Valve Cylinder head opens

Engine start Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

2.

COMPRESSION STROKE :

As the operation of rotation of the crankshaft continues the piston starts moving from BDC to TDC. Both the valves are closed in compression stroke, because of the piston movement towards TDC the pressure of air inside the cylinder increases & hence the temperature of air also increases. By the time the piston reaches TDC both the pressure & temperature are very high.

Cylinder head

Compression Stroke--

Engine start Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

POWER OR EXPANSION SRTOKE : At the end of compression stroke piston is at TDC. Just before the end of compression stroke, diesel is sprayed into the cylilnder through the injector nozzle. As the compressed air is at sufficient high temperature the sprayed diesel get ignited, leading to gas formation. As this gas expands it pushes the piston from TDC to BDC. The force obtained at the piston is transmitted from the connecting rod to the crankshaft which help in rotating the crankshaft. This operation is called as power or expansion stroke. Both the valves are closed this stroke. Power Stroke/
Expansion stroke Both valve remains closed

Cylinder head Engine start Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

4.

EXHAUST STROKE :

The piston which is at BDC at the end of power stroke; starts moving to TDC due to the crankshaft rotation. In this stroke the exhaust valve remains open and the burnt gases which remain inside the cylinder after the combustion is thrown out through the exhaust port and through exhaust silencer. In the above process as the piston reaches TDC the exhaust valve closes. As soon as exhaust stroke is over, the inlet valve starts opening and next cycle starts. This type of operation takes place as per the firing order of engine i.e. eg in case of 4 cyl. the firing order is 1-3-4-2.

Exhaust strokeExhaust valve Opens

Cylinder head Engine start Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

Start-assist systems such as glow plugs increase the quality of the fuel-air mixture during the starting phase. Modern glow plugs help to lower both exhaust-gas and noise emissions.

Tappet Setting is conducted according to Firing sequence. It is written on each crankcase. 1] 4 DI Engine--1st Piston--3rd Piston--4th Piston--2nd Piston

2] 3 DI Engine------1st Piston--3rd Piston---2nd Piston

3] 2 DI Engine------1st Piston--2nd Piston

OIL QUANTITY AS PER SOP


MODEL 2DI. 3DI 4DI 235DI 245DI 445DI 605DI [ RJS. ] 605DI [ NJS. ] QUANTITY 5.000 Ltr. 5.800 Ltr. 7.600 Ltr. 5.800 Ltr. 6.800 Ltr. 7.600 Ltr. 8.900 Ltr. 10.000 Ltr.

Regular Engine

235DI ENGINE

Arjun Engine

* Crankshaft Rotation *
Crankshaft

Inlet & Exhaust Valve Open and closed

FIP Gear
Idler Gear

* Cam Gear

Pinion

EMMISSION NORMS
means dangerous gas to be reduced

FOR AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR ---DIESEL ENGINES Unit of emmission : gm. / kw-h Test done as per EFC R49 --13 MODE CYCLE
CARBON MONOXIDE [ CO ]:results from incomplete combustion , CO is an incomplete compound that lacks oxygen. CO [ Carbon Monoxide ] 4.50 4.00 2.10 1.50 Petrol and diesel fuel are all hydrocarbons.HYDROCARB ONS [ HC ];-HC emmision from an automobile are largely unburned fuel in the exhaust. HC [ Hydrocarban ] 1.10 1.10 0.66 0.46 OXIDES OF NITROGEN [ NOX ] :High temperature and pressure of combustion are what produce good performances and fuel economy in an engine , The also produce oxide of Nitrogen Nox [ Nitrogen Oxigen oxide ] PM [ Particulate Matter ] 8.00 0.36 7.00 0.15 5.00 0.10 3.50 0.02

INDIA Year Norm 2000 BS I 2003 BS II 2005 BS III 2010 BS IV

EUROPE Year Norms 1992 EURO I 1997 EURO II 2001 EURO III 2005 EURO IV

EMMISSION NORMS
FOR AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT ---DIESEL ENGINES Unit of emmission : gm. / kw-h Test done as ISO per 8178C1--8 Mode cycle
OXIDES OF NITROGEN [ NOX ] :- High Petrol and diesel fuel are all CARBON MONOXIDE [ CO ]:- results temperature and pressure of combustion are hydrocarbons.HYDROCARBONS [ HC ];from incomplete combustion , CO is an what produce good performances and fuel HC emmision from an automobile are incomplete compound that lacks oxygen. economy in an engine , The also produce oxide largely unburned fuel in the exhaust. of Nitrogen PM [ Implementation Particulate Date Matter ] 1st Oct. 1999 1.00 0.80 1st June 2003 1st Oct. 2005

Norms Trem / Bhara Stage [ BS] ---1 Trem / Bhara Stage [ BS] ---2 Trem / Bhara Stage [ BS] ---3

CO [ Carbon Monoxide ] 14.00 9.00 5.50

HC [ Hydrocarban ] 3.50 15.00 9.50

Nox [ Nitrogen Oxigen oxide ] 18.00

10

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE


Some Abbreviations :

ECL : Emission Certification lab : In which, we test the engine as per specification given by us as per ARAI Norms

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE


Some Abbreviations :
ECL : Emission Certification lab

EDL: Engine design lab


COP: Conformity of Production FTP: Full throttle performance

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE


Some Abbreviations :

COP: Conformity of Production : For confirmation of norms of Engine such as Emission, FTP and 80% load test

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE


Some Abbreviations :
ECL : Emission Certification lab

EDL: Engine design lab


COP: Conformity of Production FTP: Full throttle performance

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE

Procedure:
1] Letter from ARAI for engine plan in the start of every fiscal year. 2] Modelwise plan to be sent to ARAI by May( If we have to send two engines then we have to communicate them by September end) 3] Visit of ARAI Representative to plant ( We have to keep Engines ready in tested OK conditions) 4] 30 Hrs testing of all models at plant in front of ARAI Representative . 5] Selection and sealing of Engines by ARAI Representative. 6] ARAI will communicate us the COP testing schedule at pune

7] Selected Engines to be dispatch at ARAI 8] Testing of Engine at the ARAI as per ARAI Norms

9] Engine Approval Certificate for production is to be sent by ARAI

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE

Number of Engine:
1] Yearly one Engine of each Model wise per 1000 to 7500 Engine to sent to ARAI for COP 2] Yearly two Engines of each Model wise per 7500 to 23000 Engines to be sent to ARAI for COP

Different type of test carried at ARAI


1] Full throttle performance 2] 80% of Full throttle performance 3] 8 mode emission test

4] Timing crosschecking

*Special tools required COP testing at Pune*


1] Adopter plate with mtg. bolt and washer 2] Engine mounting bracket with bolts 3] Modified pump mtg. dummy plats with gasket. 4]Hydraulic pump mtg. dummy plate with Gasket 5] Hour meter mtg. plate with gasket 6] Air cleaner W/O oil with hose pipe 7] Spill cut off gauge [ Manual ] 8] Exhaust manifold w/o stub pipe 9] Engine lifting tackle .

* ENGINE BEHAVIOUR AT ARAI *


[ ARAI : Automotive Research Association of India ] This oraganisation is for cetfying to produce any model of engine n

Sr.

RPM

T orqu e N.m

Ex . Back Pressu re m bar

A ir I ntake Dep. m bar (negativ e)

Fu el Flow Kg/h r

Power KW

BSFC gm /KWh r

Sm oke HSU

1 2 3 4 5 6

2302 2102 1902 1702 1402 1203

134.6 143 148.8 155.9 154.6 152.9

95.2 79.3 65.1 54.7 45 33.3

23.9 21.6 17.2 13.9 9.6 10

7.42 7.11 6.61 6.22 5.09 4.38

32.43 31.46 29.62 27.77 22.69 19.25

229.2 226.82 223.39 224.12 224.59 227.77

12.7 14.22 14.9 16.1 23.1 25.2

Difference in Components
Sr. BS 2 BS 3 NEW Pattern [ Needle thickness LESS ] : The DSLA VCO Nozzle ( Valve Closed Orifice ) is the lates product from MICO.Designed using state-of art technology from Robert Bosch Germany , It reduces emmission and successfully meats OlD Pattern [ Needle thickness more ] stringen emmission norms Features :1] Soft ball Profile 2] Spray holes open directly into seat. 3] Smaller spray holes made by spark Erosion process. Omega type point in combustion chamber Round type point in combustion chamber of Piston of Piston

* Engine Starting System*


Starter motor Flywheel

Crankshaft
With the help of Crank Pinion Gear Idler Gear moves FIP Gear moves

With the help of Pulley With the help of Pulley Belts

With the help of Connecting Rod Piston moves

Water pump run Alternator run

FIP Moves

Cam Gear moves


Camshaft moves

Push rod ups & down Rocker arm assembly Oil pump assembly

Inlet & Exhaust Valve Open and closed

Oil Filter
Oil Gallery

FIP Gear
Idler Gear

* Cam Gear

Pinion

Exhaust

Air filter

Through Exhaust manifold

Exhaust

Air filter

Through Exhaust manifold

Valve clearance can only be checked when the valves are in fully closed position and push rods are free (not loaded). This condition for a particular cylinder will occur only when its piston is at TDC in compression stroke. To achieve this, the engine should be rotated till the inlet valve return spring is fully compressed. (valve fully open). After this, giving a 1800 rotation to the crankshaft (by using chalk mark and scale) will cause both the valves to be closed as now compression stroke TDC is reached. At this instant clearance of both the valves of the respective cylinders can be checked and adjusted to the specified valve. Similarly all the valve clearances can be adjusted.

Push Rod pushes ROCKER ARM

Tappet pushesPUSH ROD

Crankshaft Rotates CAMSHAFT with the help Cam gear

Camshaft PushesTAPPET

Valvearm press Rocker VALVE resulting Valve opening

In order to prevent any two parts from friction, lubrication is carried out. It overcomes friction between two parts.

* Types of Lubrication *
1] Pressurized Oil Lubrication through: A] Lobe type oil pump B] Gear type oil pump 2] Splash type oil Lubrication 3] Mist or Vapour type Lubrication

Mahindra using all 3 types


1] Pressurized oil lubrication ----In all models 2] Splash Lubrication for piston ---In all model, except Arjun Tractor ,there is cooling jet for Piston lubrication 3] Mist or Vapor Lubrication ----In 235DI engine, it is used for lubricating the Rocker arm assembly

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*

2
Cylinder .Head

5 4
Filter

Idler Gear

1
Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*

5 4
Filter

Idler Gear

1
Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*

5 4
Filter Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*

5
Main oil Gallery

Oil Distribution Center

4
Filter

Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*

2 1
Idler Gear

5 4
Filter

Crankshaft

Camshaft

3
Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear

Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*

Idler gear

Idler Gear

5 4
Filter

1
Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*


Rocker arm assembly

Idler gear

Idler Gear

5 4
Filter Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*


Rocker arm assembly

Idler gear

Idler Gear

5 4
Filter Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

* 5 Way Oil Circulation in Engine*

2
FIP Lubrication Pipe Idler gear

Idler Gear

5 4
Filter Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

1
3
Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy.

FIP Pump.

Oil Circulation in Engine*


6 2
FIP Lubrication Pipe Idler gear
Turbine

Idler Gear

4
Filter

Oil pump Specification Pump speed : 875 RPM Discharge :16 LPM ,Pressure : 28 PSI

Oil Level

Oil Pan
Pump

Pump
Filter
Main Oil Gallery

Oil
Turbine Crankshaft/ Camshaft Idler Gear Rocker Arm Assy. FIP Pump.

7th Way Oil Circulation in Engine*


Engines which do not have an oil pump for lubricant circulation and depend on splash of oil due to crankshaft rotation are known as splash lubricated engines.

Splash Lubrication System When Oil Pump is not used

The fuel injection system is responsible for supplying and injecting the required amount of fuel into the cylinder, at the right time.

5. FUEL SYSTEM :
Fuel system has five important components like. a) Fuel Tank - In which fuel (diesel) is filled. b) Fuel pump - Its main function is to supply diesel to the cylinder with the help of nozzle. First, the diesel reaches main gallery of fuel pump from the tank with the help of feed pump from where it passes through the plunger & delivery valve before entering the high pressure pipes and reaching the nozzle. c) Fuel Injector - The pressure of diesel in injector goes on increasing as diesel is delivered by fuel pump delivery plunger and this diesel is sprayed in the right quantity & at right time at predetermined pressure into the cylinder.

* Diesel Circulation *
Injector
Over flow

Diesel Tank

FIP
Feed pump

Filter

Diesel Circulation * From Tank to FIP


Injector
Over flow

Diesel Tank

FIP
Feed pump

Feed Pump Fuel Pressure 1.5 to 2 Bar

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Diesel Circulation * From FIP,s Feed pump to Filter


Injector
Over flow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump Sucks and circulate diesel from Diesel tank to Diesel filter

FIP
Feed pump

Feed Pump Fuel Pressure 1.5 to 2 Bar

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Diesel Circulation From Filter to FIP *


Over flow

Diesel Tank

FIP
Feed pump

Feed Pump Fuel Pressure 1.5 to 2 Bar

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Diesel Circulation From Filter to FIP *


Injector
Over flow

Diesel Tank

FIP
Feed pump

Feed Pump Fuel Pressure 1.5 to 2 Bar

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Diesel Circulation From Filter to FIP *


Injector
Over flow

Diesel Tank

FIP
Feed pump

Feed Pump Fuel Pressure 1.5 to 2 Bar

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Diesel Circulation * From FIP to Injector


Injector
Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Pressure 500 Bar
Over flow

Diesel Tank

FIP
Feed pump

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Injector Fuel Pressure 250-300 Bar

Diesel Circulation * From FIP to Injector


Over flow

Diesel Tank

Injector

FIP
Feed pump

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Diesel Circulation * From Over flow from FIP to Tank


Injector Fuel Pressure 250-300 Bar

Diesel Tank
Over flow

FIP
Feed pump

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Injector Fuel Pressure 250-300 Bar

Diesel Circulation * From Over flow from Injector to Tank


Diesel Tank
Over flow

Fuel Injection Pump Fuel Pressure 500Bar in High Pressure pipe

FIP
Feed Pump Fuel Pressure 1.5 to 2 Bar

Filter
Diesel Tank

FIP Overflow

Diesel Tank

Feed Pump

Diesel filter

FIP

Injector

Injector Overflow

Cooling System
The cooling system is responsible for maintaining an even temperature during operation, of about 190 degrees Fahrenheit.

6. COOLING SYSTEM :
The heat generated due to combustion & friction of mating parts also heats up crankcase & cylinder head which causes rise in temperature. In order to counter this heat, water is circulated on the outer walls of crankcase & cylinder head.

Engine will give its optimum performance at 700C to 900C of water temperature When the engine is started its temperature is less & at this time the thermostat valve does not allow water to go back to radiator till the engine temperature reaches 700C to 900C, when the temperature becomes higher than 900C, the valve opens fully & with the help of water pump, the circulation of water between engine & radiator starts, their water is cooled in the radiator & then sent back to crank case & cylinder head to reduce their temperature. When engine temperature reduces below 70 0C, thermostat valve closes & water entry to the radiator stops. This shows that thermostat is a very important component of the cooling system. If this is removed, the water circulation between engine & radiator continues & the engine does not attain its working temperature range. As a result the engine working is not proper & the power developed is not optimum. If thermostat is not working & does not open at the right time, then the water inside the engine will not go into the radiator which leads to overheating problems in the engine

* Water Circulation Function in Engine*


Water Filling Cap

Water pump Specification :Pump speed : 3000RPM, Discharge :100LPM, Pressure : 28 PSI

Cylinder .Head Water Jacket

Radiator

Water pump

Crankcase Water Jacket

Water Level Oil Level

Water Inlet

Radiator

Pump

Crankcase

C.H

Bypass-tube

Thermostat

Radiator

* Water Circulation Function in Engine*


Water pump Specification :-Pump speed : 3000RPM,Discharge:100LPM,Pressure : 2 PSI
Water Filling Cap Bypass Tube

Water pump Specification :Pump speed : 3000RPM, Discharge :100LPM, Pressure : 28 PSI

Cylinder .Head Water Jacket

Radiator

Water pump

Crankcase Water Jacket

Water Level Oil Level

Water Inlet

Radiator

Pump

Crankcase

C.H

Bypass-tube

Thermostat

Radiator

* Water Circulation Function in Engine*


Water pump Specification :-Pump speed : 3000RPM,Discharge:100LPM,Pressure : 2 PSI
Water Filling Cap Bypass Tube

Water pump Specification :Pump speed : 3000RPM, Discharge :100LPM, Pressure : 28PSI

Cylinder .Head Water Jacket

Radiator

Water pump

Crankcase Water Jacket

Water Level Oil Level

Water Inlet

Radiator

Pump

Crankcase

C.H

Bypass-tube

Thermostat

Radiator

* Water Circulation Function in Engine*


Water pump Specification :-Pump speed : 3000RPM,Discharge:100LPM,Pressure : 2 PSI
Water Filling Cap

Bypass Tube

Water pump Specification :Pump speed : 3000RPM, Discharge :100LPM, Pressure : 28 PSI

Cylinder .Head Water Jacket

Radiator

Water pump

Crankcase Water Jacket

Water Level Oil Level

Water Inlet

By closing the passage to the radiator when the engine is cold ,the engine warms up more quickly results shortens warm up time ,less fuel & Emission.

Radiator

Pump

Crankcase

C.H

Bypass-tube

Thermostat

Radiator

* Water Circulation Function in Engine*


Water pump Specification :-Pump speed : 3000RPM,Discharge:100LPM,Pressure : 2 PSI
Thermostat Assy.Strart open Temp. from 80 to 85C at.1mm travel ,full open travel of 9.5mm at 96C Maximum
Water pump Specification :Pump speed : 3000RPM, Discharge :100LPM, Pressure : 28 PSI Cylinder .Head Water Jacket
Water Filling Cap

Thermostate

Radiator

Water pump

Crankcase Water Jacket

Water Level Oil Level

Water Inlet

Radiator

Pump

Crankcase

C.H

Bypass-tube

Thermostat

Radiator

* Water cooling & Oil cooling in Arjun Engine*


Water pump Specification :-Pump speed : 3000RPM,Discharge:100LPM,Pressure : 2 PSI
Thermostat Assy.Strart open Temp. from 80 to 85C at.1mm travel ,full open travel of 9.5mm at 96C Maximum

Water Filling Cap

Thermostate

Cylinder .Head Water Jacket

Radiator

Water pump

Crankcase Water Jacket

Water Level
Water Cooling Oil Adaptor

Oil Filter

Level

Water Inlet

Radiator

Pump

Crankcase

C.H

Bypass-tube

Thermostat

Radiator

BP235
Engine
Mahindra Launching
1st Air Cooled Engine

Characteristics of 235 DI Engine :-

It is one of First Air cooled 22 HP Engine of our company.

,Blower fan is used for cooling the engine instead of water


BLOWER FAN

Natural Air --cooling the Engine through Fan

Fan

NO WATER REQUIRED FOR


BP 235DI Engine

Sr.
1 2 3 4 5

Regular Engine
Water Cooled Engine Governer in Fuel Injection Pump Regular Above 25 HP More than one Cylinder Engine Crankshaft & Fly wheel smaller

235 DI Engine
Air Cooled Engine Governer fitted beside Crankshaft 22 HP Single Cylinder Engine Crankshaft and Flywheel Bigger Spill cut off setting done on Tappet roller and on TDC of Piston Engine vibration more

6 7

Spill cut off setting done on FIP and on TDC of Piston Engine Vibration less

8 9

Tappet setting done on Rocker arm top by Dial Tappet setting done between Rocker arm and Valve by feeler Gauge. gauge Complete FIP Partil FIP Blower Fan required
Oil Cricuit small

10 No Blower fan required


11 Oil Cricuit Large

Governor Fitment
Regular Engine
235DI Engine

Tappet Setting
Regular Engine
Inlet 16Exhaust 20

235DI Engine

Regular Engine Spill cut off Setting


Piston TDC sets on

FIP sets on

235DI Engine Spill cut off Setting


Piston TDC sets on

Tappet roller sets on

* Compressor Temperature*
Definition : Actual temperature at the time of compression stroke

Diesel Required : 450 to 500 F

Actual Temp. : 650 to 800 F


Cylinder head
Compression Stroke-

Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

* Compressor Pressure*
Definition : Actual Pressure at the time of compression stroke

Actual : 380 to 550 PSI


Cylinder head
Compression Stroke-

Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

Air Fuel Ratio/ Stockiometric


Definition : The ratio between the Air and the fuel in the cylinder liner..

Air + Fuel Ratio : 15:1


Cylinder head
Compression Stroke-

Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

* SWEPT VOLUME *
VOLUME SWEPT BY PISTON FROM BDC TO TDC

* CLEARANCE VOLUME *
VOLUME ABOVE THE PISTON CROWN [HEAD] WHEN THE PISTON IS AT TDC

Compression ratio
An engine have the more compression ratio can develop more power
Definition : The ratio between Total volume of the cylinder and the Clearance volume . Clearance volume = Total volume Stroke volume [ TDC to BDC ] Diesel Compression Ratio : 15-24:1 Tractor engine compression ratio : 17-18:1 Petrol Compression Ratio : 8-10 :1

Cylinder head
Compression Stroke-

Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

Exhaust

Air filter

Through Exhaust manifold

Exhaust Gas is used for moving Turbine Turbine is coupled with motor . Motor sucks the Air from air filter and forces the same to Engine through Intake manifold.
Advantages: 1] Low fuel consumption 2] Lower emission 3] Better torque characteristics 4] Lower weight & small Engine 5] Lower Engine noise 6] Altitude compensation --Himalaya

Exhaust Gas is used for moving Turbine Turbine is coupled with motor . Motor sucks the Air from air filter and forces the same to Engine through Intake manifold.

Function : It increases the power

Indias First launched turbo charger Ex- Engine in haust tractor

Air filter

Through Exhaust manifold Through Intake Manifold

Central Housing ----Cast Iron


Stainless steel Heat shield bet. Turbine housing & control housing

Compressor Housing ---Aluminum etc

Exhaust

Turbine Housing ---Cast Iron

Air filter

Through Exhaust Turbine wheel and shaft is pressure or friction welded manifold , [ both moves opp.side.]
[ with cut section]

Oil sealing is done by piston ring type of seal which works on principal of
pressure differential

Inter Cooler

Inter Cooler Using for cooling the air So that expansion of air may be withheld

Compression Wheel Compressed the air & Send to Engine in 60,000 to 2.5 Lakh RPM Speed

Exhaust Gas is only Used to rotate Turbine wheel Exhaust

Air filter

Through Exhaust manifold Through Intake Manifold

Balance of Shaft is done On Special Type Machine Costing 50 crore,


[ Notches on vanes of compressor & turbine are nothing but balancing weigh removed.]

Starting and Stopping Of Engine at Low Idle or speed

Exhaust
Turbine works on Centrifugal Principal Through Exhaust

Air filter

manifold
Compressor wheel Centripetal Principal

Create Boost or power, Its excess pressure actuate the waster gate

A turbocharger uses the engine's exhaust gases to do the gives an immediate response. (A turbocharger uses the engine's exhaust gases to do the same job as a super-charger, but its response is a little slower. This delay is known as same job as a super-charger, but its response is a little slower. This delay is known as turbo lag

Waste gate

Exhaust

As soon as sensor activate at Compressor housing Waste gate open at turbine housing resulting less speed of turbine.

Air filter

Through Exhaust manifold


Inter cooler

Due to Heat , air expand and cover much place, therefore Cooler is provided so that much air can accumulate

SUPER CHARGER
Super Turbo Charger
1 Supercharging is the compression of an engine's intake charge above atmospheric pressure by means of an air pump driven by a crankshaft

Turbo Charger
This is not to be confused with a turbocharger which is an air pump that is exhaust driven.

A supercharger can provide boost faster than a turbo and over a much broader engine rpm range.

Boost slower

The disadvantages of supercharging are higher Less power required as it runs on waste gases ,less power demands, more mechanical noise and more mechanical noise,easy control requirementr complex control requirements.
A mechanism that uses the engine to force it is large amounts of air into the cylinders in order to increase power. A supercharger utilizes a compressor run by the crankshaft to force air into the cylinders. Increasing the volume of air pumped into the cylinders increases the amount of fuel supplied, so a supercharger can provide more power than a non-super- charged engine with the same displacement.

BHP- Brake Horse Power


Engine should lift the specified load which is required for to calculate B.H.P. (Brake horse power).If engine unable to take this Specified load at rated rpm is called as not taking load

Dynamometer Mechanical Constant : 7024.26 Dynamometer Eddy current : 9550

Rated RPM x Rated Load BHP 475DI = Dynamometer Constant

BHP 475DI = 2300 RPM x 114.76 Nm 7024.26 BHP 475DI = 37.55

SFC- Specific Fuel Consumption


Actual Qty. x conversion in Gram x Hour SFC 475 DI = BHP x Total time consumed in seconds

SFC 475 DI = 300 ml x 0.84gm x 3600 seconds 37.55 x 166 seconds

SFC 475 DI

= 145.54 Seconds

Power Taking Off Test [Power variation test ] [PTO Test]


BP235 Tractor PTO TEST RESULTS
SpecificationPower : (HP) : 21 +/-5 % SFC Corrt.(gm/Hp/Hr) : 197 +/-5 %

Date 10/06/2006

PTO TEST RESULTS


SN Engine Tractor no S.N. S3493 NAF3368 Power in Corr. Ambient Corr. Time Speed Torque KW Power [room] factor as SFC(gm/Hp/Hr Power in SFC(gm/Kw /Hr) SFC Corrt.(gm/Hp/Hr) Temp. (RPM) (NM) ( PTO (HP) per ) (HP) Sec Deg. Cent. PS729 bed 573 225.5 13.5 18.35 40.0 1.09 20.01 199 279.73 205.74 188.75

13.5 KW * 0.7355 = 18.35 HP

( 250ml * 0.835gm * 279.73 KW * 18.35 HP * 3600 Seconds) / ( 13.5 0.7355 = 1.09 = 20.01HP KW * 199 Seconds) = 205.74 HP 279.79 KW

( 250ml * 0.835gm * 3600 Seconds) / ( 20.01 HP * 199 Seconds)

S3496 NAF3375

573

226.9

13.6

18.49

40.0

1.09

20.15 197

280.49

206.30

189.27

S3490 NAF3367

573

226.2

13.6

18.49

40.0

1.09

20.15 193

286.31

210.58

193.19

Pre-ignition
Burning of charge during compression without being the sparkplug functions, causes sever thrust on the crown of piston. Probable Causes: 1]Burn carbon stick to top face of Piston causes pre-ignition 2] To start Over heated Engine

Difference between Petrol & Diesel Engine:For igniting the diesel compressed hot air used.

3. High tension current is used to ignite the mixture.

4. Spark plug is used.Max Temp 6000 F No spark plug is used 5. Fuel pump is used only to lift petrol. 6. As the starting torque is less, small battery can be used. Without the fuel injection pump engine cannot be operated. Starting torque is more; use of large battery is must.

7. For one H.P. more petrol is required, Less quantity of diesel is required for an which is costly. H.P. and diesel is cheaper. 8. These are light engines and these cannot be made more powerful. This is heavy engine and these can be made highly powerful.

9. These engines are cheap but there maintains is expensive. 10. These work on the principle on otto Cycle.

These engines are costly but the maintains and the care is less expensive. These engines work on the Diesel Cycle.

Standard of International Unit : Nm

Foot Pound] Torque = Force x Perpendicular Distance


British standard : LB FT [
Its scientific terms Torque is the turning moment created by tangential force applied at a distance from the axis of rotation Simple stated :Torque is the force that turns the srew, nut or Bolt upto required tightening, it avoids excessive tightening

How to Operate Torque :1] Arrow mark should be on top side 2] It should pulled toward our self or clockwise. 3] It should be used only for tightening. not for opening

Socket

It runs on Current Through motor

Assembly - Design of tools


Unique configurati on for DC

nut runners for all fasteners.

ENGINE TORQUE :
Is a measure of the twisting effect of the pistons on the crankshaft Engines differ a good deal, and to find a common denominator for comparison, torque is measured at a distance of 1 ft. from the centre of the crankshaft. The force itself is measured in pounds. To distinguish it from any other form of measurement, torque is referred to in terms of pounds feet. In practice, the actual measurement may be made at a greater distance from the crankshaft but it is always related to the unit for measuring torque, namely the pound-foot. TORQUE @ engine . rpm : Engine torque is a measure of the twisting effect of the piston on the crankshaft. By comparing torque curves the characteristics of one engine can be compared with that of another. One must not forget, however, that there are other characteristics of an engine that are important - the most important of these being the r.p.m. readings from which the torque curve was developed. A flat torque curve over the greatest possible range of r.p.m.'s is desirable. If the maximum governed revolutions are higher than the revolutions at which maximum torque can be obtained, when the engine revolutions drop the " lugging ability" of the tractor can increase slightly. A flat torque curve also allows for a greater range of throttle settings at which high power can be developed. It is important, therefore, always to check the revolutions at which the maximum torque is obtained from a particular engine.

Relation between force and crankshaft position [ Torque ]


When the piston is at top dead center and a force is applied on the piston, there is no rotation, but there will be great force placed on the piston, connecting rod, bearings, crankshaft and engine crankcase. As the crankshaft rotates to 20 degrees after top dead center the relation between the connecting rod and crankshaft creates a 30% torque advantage.

Crankshaft position [ Torque ]


At about 63 degrees after top dead center the centerline of the connecting rod and the crankshaft form a 90 degree angle, thereby achieving the greatest torque advantage. As the crankshaft angle increases, the torque advantage decreases in proportion to that which is gained.

INDIRECT OR DIRECT INJECTION TYPE : HSD is injected under high pressure in the combustion chamber through injector nozzles. If the injection is directed into a pre-combustion chamber provided on the cylinder head and then flames of ignited gases propagates onto the piston crown, then the system is known as Indirect Type Injection (IDI). If the nozzles directly inject a fine spray of HSD in a cavity over the piston crown and ignition starts there itself, then the system is called Direct Injection Type (DI) that for proper ignition (of injected diesel) fuel-air mixture should be appropriate. The Current range of Mahindra Tractors are equipped with - Internal combustion, multi-cylinder, Inline, Mono-block, Under square, Four stroke, Compression Ignition, Force Lubricated, Water Cooled, Overhead Valve arrangement Type, Direct and Indirect Injection engines.

*Types of Diesel Injection in Engine*


Direct Injection [DI]
DI Engine = Direct Injection :- Combustion chamber exists on Crown [top surface] of Piston and Cylinder head remains without combustion chamber

Indirect Injection [ IDI ]


IDI Engine = InDirect Injection:- Combustion chamber exists in Cylinder head and piston remains flat on top face .

*Using in Mahindra *

Injector

Glow plug for heating

Cylinder head
Injector

Cylinder head
Piston

Piston

IDI Engine* GLOW PLUG *

fuel economy and towing performance. Diesel engines do not have spark plugs or carburetors. Instead glow plugs are used to preheat air in the cylinders to

ensure easy starts. Once the engine is started, compression heats the fuel in the
cylinders for combustion.

* Combustion Pressure*
Definition : Actual Pressure at the time of Combustion

Actual : 750-950 PSI


Cylinder head
Compression Stroke-

Crankcase TDC

IS
89,90,101mm

TDC
89,90,101mm

Normal

BDC 1st Stroke

2nd Stroke

BDC 3rd Stroke

4th Stroke

What is Tractor ?
The word tractor is derived from word "traction" which means tractor is basically a prime mover, which generates power for driving or pulling other attachments. It works on the principle of traction which in turn means conversion of power into force (work done). The first step towards evolution of a tractor was the use of portable steam engine which provided only belt power but had to be carried from place to place. These steam engines were later converted into a self propelled steam engine tractors. After the development of internal Combustion engines, the tractors which could run on gasoline were developed & first patented in 1890. The brief history of heat engine developed in the early20 century is brief below.

MOMENT : The moment of force about a point is the product of the force times the shortest distance between the point and the line of application of the force. It is a means of measuring the effect of a force about a point

WORK : The engineer's conception of work is the foot-pound. It is the work done when one pound is moved to one foot

POWER : Is the rate of doing work. It is simply work related to time. The basic unit is the ft. -lb. of work per minute

HORSEPOWER : The ft. -lb. of work per minute is too small for practical purposes. Therefore, the horsepower unit had to be defined.

One horsepower was defined as being equivalent to 33,000 ft. - lb. of work per minute.
HORSEPOWER AND THE TRACTOR Work is a product of force distance. Power was defined as the work done in a given time. Then, if a tractor pulls a load of 2,000 lbs. distance of 10 -ft. in one minute, 20,000 ft.-lbs, of work will have been done in one minute. To relate this to horsepower, this figure must be divided by 33,000. To take a more practical approach and to speak in common terms -

Pull at tractor in lbs. x Speed in m.p.h.

= Horsepower 375
The figure 375 is obtained by simple mathematics and is a

conversion of ft. per minute to m.p.h.

DRAWBAR HORSEPOWER
A buyer must be aware of the actual Horsepower available to him for use as Drawbar Horsepower as against the claimed Horsepower of the manufacture. Drawbar Horsepower is the power available at the drawbar of the Tractor after reduction of Horsepower due to losses at various stages, and is much less than the claimed horsepower

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ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE

Some Abbreviations : ECL : Emission cortication lab

EDL: Engine design lab COP: Conformity of Production


FTP: Full throttle performance

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE

Procedure:
1] Letter from ARAI for engine plan in the start of every fiscal year. 2] Modelwise plan to be sent to ARAI by May( If we have to send two engines then we have to communicate them by September end) 3] Visit of ARAI Representative to plant ( We have to keep Engines ready in tested OK conditions) 4] 30 Hrs testing at plant in front of ARAI Representative . 5] Selection and sealing of Engines by ARAI Representative. 6] Selected Engines to be dispatch to ARAI Representative . 7] ARAI will communicate us the COP testing schedule at pune

ARAI [ Automotive Research Association of India ] Kothrud,Vetal Hill Khelwadi, PUNE

Number of Engine:
1] Yearly one Engine per 1000 to 7500 Engine model wise to sent to ARAI for COP 2] Yearly two Engines per 7500 to 23000 Engines model wise to be sent to ARAI for COP

Different type of test carried at ARAI


1] Full throttle performance 2] 80% of Full throttle performance 3] 8 mode emission test

4] Timing crosschecking

*Special tools required COP testing at Pune*


1] Adopter plate with mtg. bolt and washer 2] Engine mounting bracket with bolts 3] Modified pump mtg. dummy plats with gasket. 4]Hydraulic pump mtg. dummy plate with Gasket 5] Hour meter mtg. plate with gasket 6] Air cleaner W/O oil with hose pipe 7] Spill cut off gauge [ Manual ] 8] Exhaust manifold w/o stub pipe 9] Engine lifting tackle .