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Basic Concept of 3G Network

3G rel99 Architecture (UMTS) - 3G Radios


2G MS (voice only) BSS Abis E A B BSC BTS 2G+ MS (voice & data) RNS ATM Iub IuPS RNC Node B 3G UE (voice & data) BSS Base Station System BTS Base Transceiver Station BSC Base Station Controller CN Core Network MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller VLR Visitor Location Register HLR Home Location Register RNS Radio Network System RNC Radio Network Controller AuC Authentication Server GMSC Gateway MSC SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node Gn SGSN Gb MSC Gs IuCS VLR C D H GMSC PSTN CN

PSTN

SS7
Gr HLR

AuC

Gc Gi

PSDN

IP

GGSN

WCDMA Specification

Spreading process in WCDMA


Coding & Interleaving

3,840 Kcps

Channelization Code
1st Step: Channelization

Scrambling Code

Variable Rate Spreading ( According to user data rate)

2nd Step: Scrambling Code


Fixed Rate Spreading (3,840 Kchips)

Downlink (NodeB to UE ) Scrambling Code: Identifies cell (sector). Channelization Code: Identifies user channels in cell (Sector).

Scrambling Code A Scrambling Code B


Channelization Channelization Code 2 Channelization Code 3 Code 1 Channelization Code 1 Channelization Code 1 Channelization Code 2
5

Channelization Code 2

Scrambling Code C

Up Link (UE to NodeB ) Scrambling Code: Identifies user terminal. Channelization Code: Identifies channels in user terminal.

Channelization Code 2 Channelization Code 1

Scrambling Code A
Channelization Code 1

Scrambling Code B

Channelization Code 1

Scrambling Code C

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor [OVSF] codes are the channelization codes used for signal spreading in the uplink and downlink

The code used for scrambling of the uplink Channels may be of either long or short type, There are 224 long and 224 short uplink scrambling codes. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by higher layers. For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262,143 scrambling codes can be generated. Only scrambling codes k = 0, 1, , 8191 are used. In the downlink direction 512 of scrambling codes are used to identify the cells in the downlink so downlink planning is required

Different Handover in 3G
1. 2. 3. Intra-system handovers MS handover within one cell between different sectors: Softer handover MS handover between different BS: Soft handover Hard handover Inter-frequency handovers Hard handover Inter-system handovers Handover between WCDMA <--> GSM900/1800: Hard handover Handover between WCDMA/FDD <--> TDD: Hard handover

Intra-system handovers
1. Intra-system handovers I. Softer handover II. Soft handover III. Hard handover

Softer Handover
Softer handover refers to handover between cells with same frequency and in same nodeB. As we can say HO between Cell A to Cell B of SITE0001 at f1 or f2

Soft Handover
Soft handover refers to adding a new serving cell and deleting the old one after stabilization. Services continue in the handover without any interruption. Its also known by term make before break.

Hard Handover
Hard handover refers to deleting the old serving cell and then adding a new serving cell. Services break off during the handover. Its also known by term break before make.

Events in 3G
Event
Event 1A

Description
Quality of target cell improves, entering a report range of relatively activating set quality
Quality of target cell decreases, depart from a report range of relatively activating set quality The quality of a non-activated set cell is better than that of a certain activated set cell Best cell generates change Quality of target cell improves, better than an absolute threshold Quality of target cell decreases, worse than an absolute threshold

Event 1B

Event 1C Event 1D Event 1E Event 1F

Event correlative to soft handover

Events in 3G
Event Event 2A Description Best band generates change

Event 2B

Quality of currently-used band is worse than an absolute threshold and that of non-used band is better than an absolute threshold

Event 2C Event 2D Event 2E

Quality of non-used band is better than an absolute threshold Quality of currently-used band is worse than an absolute threshold Quality of non-used band is worse than an absolute threshold

Event 2F

Quality of currently-used band is better than an absolute threshold

Event correlative to hard handover

Events in 3G
Event Description Event 3A

Quality of currently-used UTRAN operator is worse than an absolute threshold and quality of other radio systems is better than an absolute threshold

Event 3B Event 3C Event 3D

Quality of other radio systems is worse than an absolute threshold Quality of other radio systems is better than an absolute threshold Best cell in other systems generates change

Event correlative to handover between systems

Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)


The CPICH is a fixed rate (30 kbps, SF=256) downlink physical channel that carries a pre-defined bit sequence.

There are two types of Common pilot channels, the Primary and Secondary CPICH. They differ in their use and the limitations placed on their physical features
Primary CPICH

Secondary CPICH

Primary CPICH
An important area for the primary common pilot channel is the measurements for the handover and cell selection/reselection. The use of CPICH reception level at the terminal for handover measurements has the consequence that, by adjusting the CPICH power level, the cell load can be balanced between different cells. Reducing the CPICH power causes part of the terminals to hand over to other cells, while increasing it invites more terminals to hand over to the cell, as well as to make their initial access to the network in that cell.

The Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) has the following characteristics:
The same channelization code is always used for the P-CPICH. The P-CPICH is scrambled by the primary scrambling code. There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell. The P-CPICH is broadcast over the entire cell.

Secondary CPICH
Secondary CPICH may be phase reference for the secondary CCPCH. A Secondary Common Pilot Channel (S-CPICH) has the following characteristics:
An arbitrary channelization code of SF=256 is used for the S-CPICH. A S-CPICH is scrambled by either the primary or a secondary scrambling code. There may be zero, one, or several S-CPICH per cell. A S-CPICH may be transmitted over the entire cell or only over a part of the cell.

WCDMA Cell Coverage


Factors affecting cell size include: Frequency band - 2000MHz much higher than GSM networks.

Traffic types - WCDMA user data rates drop off as the user moves further away from the Node B
User levels - Demand for mobile services will increase, leading to much greater user densities
Area type Dense Urban Speech 92 144 kb/s NRT 85 GSM1800 speech 85 Cell range 1 Urban Suburb Rural 93 85 85 1.6 95 85 85 2.3 95 85 85 5.2

Voice and Slow Data Users

Fast Data Users

% % % km

average projected coverage