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Located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity.

Posterior to the sternum and slightly superior to the heart. Function: important role in the immune system. Secretion: Thymosin which stimulates maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system.

Inflammation of the thymus gland.

Usually benign tumor derived from the tissue of the thymus.

Rare malignant tumor of the thymus gland.

Surgical removal of the thymus gland.

Located in the central portion of the brain. Function: known to influence the sleep wakefulness cycle. Secretion: Melatonin influences the sleep and wakefulness portions of the circadian cycle. Circadian cycle: refers to the biologic functions that occur within a 24hour period.

Any disorder of the pineal gland.

Surgical removal of the pineal body.

Female: ovaries Male: testicles Gamete-producing glands Gamete: reproductive cell which is the sperm in male and ova in female. Gonadotropic hormone (gonadotropin): hormone that stimulates the gonads.

Function: secrete hormones responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics. Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. Female: enlarged breasts, lower height than men, wider hips than shoulders, less facial hair, functional mammary glands, more subcutaneous fat, fat deposits mainly around the buttocks, thighs and hips.

Testosterone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics.

Ovaries: estrogen/progesterone


- development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics and regulation of menstrual cycle.

Ovaries: estrogen/progesterone


- hormone released during the 2nd half of menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary which complete the preparations for pregnancy. - if pregnancy occurs, placenta takes over production of progesterone. - if pregnancy does not occur, secretion of hormone stops and is followed by the menstrual period.

Organ formed during pregnancy that allows exchange of nutrients, oxygen, waste products between mother and child. After birth, placenta is expelled. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG): hormone secreted by the placenta during pregnancy. HCG stimulates corpus luteum to continue producing hormones required to maintain pregnancy; also stimulates hormones required to stimulate lactation after childbirth.

Condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands. Can appear either before or after puberty. Before puberty: actually prods puberty into action. After puberty: those diagnosed exhibit the same effects as the prepubescent. Causes the same changes in both men and women, including: increased acne added musculature unusual growth of body hair sudden mood swings growth in the breasts Rarer than hypogonadism

Condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands. Can appear either before or after puberty. Before puberty: lack of menstruation & breast development in girls lessened muscular & beard growth in boys infertility & shortened height in both sexes After puberty: loss of menstruation & sudden onset of hot flashes in girls breast enlargement, muscle degeneration, and loss of beard in men infertility & lack of sexual desire in both sexes

Surgery Radiation Genetic and developmental disorders Liver and kidney disease Infection Certain autoimmune disorders Tumors

Condition of excessive mammary development in the male. Caused by hormonal changes during puberty Most of the time, treatment is not necessary gyneco: female mast: breast