Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 31

PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Introduction To Machine Tools


Section 1
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

History of Machines
Unit 1

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

1-3

Objectives
The development of tools throughout history
The standard types of machine tools used in shops The newly developed space-age machines and processes

1-4

History of Machine Tools


Began during stone age (<50,000 years ago)
Hand tools of wood, animal bones, or stone

Bronze age (4500 to 4000 b.c.)


Copper and bronze implements Power-operated (animal power)

Iron age (1000 b.c.)


Iron replaced bronze Domesticated animals provided power Commodities handmade by skilled craftspeople

1-5

History of Machine Tools


Machine age (~300 years ago)
Explored new sources of energy (water)

Industrial age began when James Watt produced first steam engine (1776)
Steam engine provided power to other areas Machines improved
Steam/steel in ships, railroads, steam tractors New power electricity produced by generators Diesel and gasoline engines

1-6

History of Machine Tools


Progress continued slowly during first part of 20th century
Spurts during the two world wars

Since 1950s, progress rapid Now in space age


Atom harnessed: nuclear power Journey to moon and outer space Calculators, computers, robots commonplace Can mass produce parts to millionths of an inch

1-7

Improved Production
Constant improvement made modern machine tools more accurate and efficient Improved production and accuracy
Hydraulics Pneumatics Fluidics Electronic devices

1-8

Common Machine Tools


Generally power-driven metal-cutting or forming machines used to shape metals
The removal of chips Pressing, drawing, or shearing Controlled electrical machining processes

1-9

Machine Tool Capabilities


Holding and supporting the workpiece Holding and supporting a cutting tool Imparting a suitable movement (rotating or reciprocating) to the cutting tool or the work Feeding the cutting tool or the work so that the desired cutting action and accuracy will be achieved

1-10

Machine Tool Categories


Four broad categories
Chip-producing machines Non-chip-producing machines New-generation machines Multi-tasking machines

1-11

Chip-producing Machine
Form metal to size and shape by cutting away unwanted sections Generally alter shape of steel-produced products
Casting Forging Rolling

1-12

Non-chip-producing Machines
Form metal to size and shape by pressing, drawing, punching, or shearing
Produce parts by compressing granular or powdered metallic materials

1-13

New-Generation Machines
Perform operations that cannot be done on chip- or non-chip-producing machines Use either electrical or chemical energy

1-14

Multi-tasking Machines
Combined machining and turning center Can produce virtually any shape part from rough to finish Consists of turning center with two independent spindles and vertical machining center with rotary tool spindle Combine Information Technology (IT) and Manufacturing Technology (MT)

1-15

Machine Tool Performance


Metal-removal rate
Depends upon cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut

Accuracy
How precisely machine can position cutting tool to given location once

Repeatability
Ability of machine to position cutting tool consistently to any given position

1-16

General Machine Shop Tools


Tools basic to production of metal components Operations most commonly performed: turning, boring, threading, drilling, reaming, sawing, milling, filing, and grinding Basic Machine tools
Drill press, engine lathe, power saw, milling machine and grinder

1-17

Drill Press
First mechanical device developed Used primarily to produce round holes Function to grip and revolve cutting tool Common operations
Drilling, reaming, spot facing, countersinking, counterboring, and tapping

1-18

Engine Lathe
Used to produce round work
Workpiece held and mounted on lathe spindle which is revolved against cutting tool Common operations
Straight turning, tapering, facing, drilling, boring, reaming, and thread cutting

1-19

Two Types of Metal Saw


Reciprocating cutoff saw
Used to cut work to length only

Bandsaw
Horizontal Vertical

Material in vise and saw blade brought into contact with work

Used to cut work to length Used to cut work to length and shape Material on table and brought into contact with continuous-cutting saw blade

1-20

Milling Machine
Two types: horizontal and vertical milling Use one or more rotating milling cutters with single or multiple cutting edges Workpiece fed into revolving cutter Accessories allow wide variety of operations
Drilling, reaming, boring, counterboring and spot facing

1-21

Grinder
Use abrasive cutting tool on workpiece
Bring to accurate size Produce high surface finish

Surface of work brought into contact with revolving grinding wheel

1-22

Common Types of Grinders


Surface
Used to produce flat, angular, or contoured surfaces

Cylindrical
Used to produce internal and external diameters

Cutter and Tool


Used to sharpen milling machine cutters

Bench or Pedestal
Used for offhand grinding and sharpening

1-23

Special Machine Tools


Designed to perform all operations necessary to produce single component Include
Gear-generating machines Centerless, cam and thread grinders Turret lathes Automatic screw machines

1-24

Computer Numerical Control Machines (CNC)


Brought tremendous changes Computer control of machines has allowed speed of production and undreamed of accuracies
Operating commands executed with speed, accuracy, efficiency and reliability

Replacing conventional machine tools operated by hand

1-25

CNC Equivalent of Engine Lathe


Capable of machining round parts in one sixth time of skilled machinist Two centers
Chucking
Designed to machine parts in a chuck (holding and driving device)

Turning
Designed mainly for shaft-type workpieces supported by some type of tailstock center

1-26

Machining Centers
CNC equivalent of milling machine
Can change cutting tools

Two types of machining centers


Vertical
Used for flat parts where three-axis machining required

Horizontal
Spindle in horizontal position Allows parts to be machined on any side in one setup if equipped with indexing table

1-27

Electrical Discharge Machines


Use controlled spark erosion process between cutting tool and workpiece to remove metal Two most common EDM machines
Wire-cut
Uses traveling wire to cut internal and external shapes of workpiece

Vertical ram (die sinking machine)


Feeds form tool down into workpiece

1-28

Machining New Space-age Materials


Produce shapes which were difficult or impossible to produce by other methods Four new machine tools
Electro-discharge machining Electochemical machining Electrolytic grinding Laser machining

1-29

Robotics
One of fastest-growing areas of manufacturing industry Numerical control applied to robots Capable of handling materials and changing machine tool accessories easily and efficiently

1-30

Lasers
Used increasingly for cutting and welding Used in sensing devices for extremely accurate measuring and surveying Used for many materials beyond metals

1-31

Past Half Century Developments


Slow development until early 1930s After 1932 automation introduced Great Depression provided lull in production and time used to upgrade machines AMT (Association for Manufacturing Technology) list of important developments in metalworking in text