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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools

6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Introduction To Machine Tools

Section 1
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools

6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

History of Machines
Unit 1

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.


The development of tools throughout history
The standard types of machine tools used in shops The newly developed space-age machines and processes


History of Machine Tools

Began during stone age (<50,000 years ago)
Hand tools of wood, animal bones, or stone

Bronze age (4500 to 4000 b.c.)

Copper and bronze implements Power-operated (animal power)

Iron age (1000 b.c.)

Iron replaced bronze Domesticated animals provided power Commodities handmade by skilled craftspeople


History of Machine Tools

Machine age (~300 years ago)
Explored new sources of energy (water)

Industrial age began when James Watt produced first steam engine (1776)
Steam engine provided power to other areas Machines improved
Steam/steel in ships, railroads, steam tractors New power electricity produced by generators Diesel and gasoline engines


History of Machine Tools

Progress continued slowly during first part of 20th century
Spurts during the two world wars

Since 1950s, progress rapid Now in space age

Atom harnessed: nuclear power Journey to moon and outer space Calculators, computers, robots commonplace Can mass produce parts to millionths of an inch


Improved Production
Constant improvement made modern machine tools more accurate and efficient Improved production and accuracy
Hydraulics Pneumatics Fluidics Electronic devices


Common Machine Tools

Generally power-driven metal-cutting or forming machines used to shape metals
The removal of chips Pressing, drawing, or shearing Controlled electrical machining processes


Machine Tool Capabilities

Holding and supporting the workpiece Holding and supporting a cutting tool Imparting a suitable movement (rotating or reciprocating) to the cutting tool or the work Feeding the cutting tool or the work so that the desired cutting action and accuracy will be achieved


Machine Tool Categories

Four broad categories
Chip-producing machines Non-chip-producing machines New-generation machines Multi-tasking machines


Chip-producing Machine
Form metal to size and shape by cutting away unwanted sections Generally alter shape of steel-produced products
Casting Forging Rolling


Non-chip-producing Machines
Form metal to size and shape by pressing, drawing, punching, or shearing
Produce parts by compressing granular or powdered metallic materials


New-Generation Machines
Perform operations that cannot be done on chip- or non-chip-producing machines Use either electrical or chemical energy


Multi-tasking Machines
Combined machining and turning center Can produce virtually any shape part from rough to finish Consists of turning center with two independent spindles and vertical machining center with rotary tool spindle Combine Information Technology (IT) and Manufacturing Technology (MT)


Machine Tool Performance

Metal-removal rate
Depends upon cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut

How precisely machine can position cutting tool to given location once

Ability of machine to position cutting tool consistently to any given position


General Machine Shop Tools

Tools basic to production of metal components Operations most commonly performed: turning, boring, threading, drilling, reaming, sawing, milling, filing, and grinding Basic Machine tools
Drill press, engine lathe, power saw, milling machine and grinder


Drill Press
First mechanical device developed Used primarily to produce round holes Function to grip and revolve cutting tool Common operations
Drilling, reaming, spot facing, countersinking, counterboring, and tapping


Engine Lathe
Used to produce round work
Workpiece held and mounted on lathe spindle which is revolved against cutting tool Common operations
Straight turning, tapering, facing, drilling, boring, reaming, and thread cutting


Two Types of Metal Saw

Reciprocating cutoff saw
Used to cut work to length only

Horizontal Vertical

Material in vise and saw blade brought into contact with work

Used to cut work to length Used to cut work to length and shape Material on table and brought into contact with continuous-cutting saw blade


Milling Machine
Two types: horizontal and vertical milling Use one or more rotating milling cutters with single or multiple cutting edges Workpiece fed into revolving cutter Accessories allow wide variety of operations
Drilling, reaming, boring, counterboring and spot facing


Use abrasive cutting tool on workpiece
Bring to accurate size Produce high surface finish

Surface of work brought into contact with revolving grinding wheel


Common Types of Grinders

Used to produce flat, angular, or contoured surfaces

Used to produce internal and external diameters

Cutter and Tool

Used to sharpen milling machine cutters

Bench or Pedestal
Used for offhand grinding and sharpening


Special Machine Tools

Designed to perform all operations necessary to produce single component Include
Gear-generating machines Centerless, cam and thread grinders Turret lathes Automatic screw machines


Computer Numerical Control Machines (CNC)

Brought tremendous changes Computer control of machines has allowed speed of production and undreamed of accuracies
Operating commands executed with speed, accuracy, efficiency and reliability

Replacing conventional machine tools operated by hand


CNC Equivalent of Engine Lathe

Capable of machining round parts in one sixth time of skilled machinist Two centers
Designed to machine parts in a chuck (holding and driving device)

Designed mainly for shaft-type workpieces supported by some type of tailstock center


Machining Centers
CNC equivalent of milling machine
Can change cutting tools

Two types of machining centers

Used for flat parts where three-axis machining required

Spindle in horizontal position Allows parts to be machined on any side in one setup if equipped with indexing table


Electrical Discharge Machines

Use controlled spark erosion process between cutting tool and workpiece to remove metal Two most common EDM machines
Uses traveling wire to cut internal and external shapes of workpiece

Vertical ram (die sinking machine)

Feeds form tool down into workpiece


Machining New Space-age Materials

Produce shapes which were difficult or impossible to produce by other methods Four new machine tools
Electro-discharge machining Electochemical machining Electrolytic grinding Laser machining


One of fastest-growing areas of manufacturing industry Numerical control applied to robots Capable of handling materials and changing machine tool accessories easily and efficiently


Used increasingly for cutting and welding Used in sensing devices for extremely accurate measuring and surveying Used for many materials beyond metals


Past Half Century Developments

Slow development until early 1930s After 1932 automation introduced Great Depression provided lull in production and time used to upgrade machines AMT (Association for Manufacturing Technology) list of important developments in metalworking in text