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RADIOGRAPHY TESTING

Principle of Radiography

Principle of Radiography
Electromagnetic radiation of certain wavelengths penetrate materials and are absorbed differentially by different materials. The emergent radiation from the job is recorded normally on a film The film after processing is called a radiograph and contains the shadow image of the discontinuities which produce differential degree of darkness on the radiograph

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Characteristics of X rays and Gamma Rays


Capable of Penetrating most of the industrial materials Travels in straight lines Can affect photographic films Can ionize gases Can affect living cells Invisible, Odorless

Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation


X Rays
X ray Generator, Linear Accelerator, Betatron

Gamma Rays
Natural and Artificial Radioactive elements Natural : Radium, Polonium, Uranium, Radon Artificial : Iridium 192, Cobalt 60, Cesium 137 Ytterbium 170, Thulium 169

X RAY
X rays are produced when high speed electrons hit a material target in an evacuated chamber ( 10 ^ -12 to 10^ -13 torr )

CONSTRUCTION OF X RAY GENERATOR

FOCAL SPOT

Parameters in X Radiography
KV Controls thickness to which can be radiographed Exposure affects the density of image in the radiographs Exposure mA * Mins

X RAY UNIT - CONTROLS

Gamma radiography
Gamma rays are produced during radioactive decay of elements
Alpha particles are He ++ Beta particles are (-) Gamma radiation is a electromagnetic radiation

Radioactive decay

RADIOACTIVE SOURCE CAMERA

GAMMA RAY CAMERA OPERATION


Source in stored position in pig

Source cranked partially out source no longer shielded

Source in exposure position all the way

Source Pencil

Co 60 Created by Neutron bombardment, capsuled pellet 1.17, 1.33 MeV Penetration 1 - 8 steel Requires thick shielding Container is bulky and handling difficult

Iridium 192 Produced by neutron bombardment 0.31, 0.47 & 0.60 MeV Capsuled pellet Easy shielded and less bulky widely used 0.25 3 inches thick steel

EXPOSURE CHART

Characteristics of sources
Isotope Half life Form Energy Practical Ci Rhm Dia, app, Cobalt60 Ir 192 5.3 yrs 75 days Co Ir
1.33,1.17 0.45

Cs 137c 30 yr CsCl
0.66

Sources 20 27 3 mm

50 60 3 mm

75 30 10 mm

Characteristics of Isotopes
Curie is a measure of disintegration of source 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 disintegrations per sec In SI System it is 1 Becquerel = 1 disintegrations / sec Half Life : length of time required for the activity to decay to one half of the original value Energy is expressed as KeV or MeV Specific Activity : Ci/ gm of isotope

Parameters in Gamma radiography


Source determines the thickness limit of radiography Exposure determines the density of radiographic image Exposure = Curie * min Curie Strength of source

RADIOGRAPHIC FILM

CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

FILM PROCESSING

ASTM Penetrameters

Hole Type

Wire Type

LOCATION OF PENETRAMETERS
AWS D1.1

Sensitivity Level
Equivalent Sensitivity %
0.7 1.0 1.4

Quality Level

T of Penetrameter
1 1 2

Perceptible hole dia


1T 2T 1T

1-1T 1-2T 2-1T

2.0
2.8 4

2-2T
2-4T 4-2T

2
2 4

2T
4T 2T

DIN Wire Penetrameter


DIN 1-7 1- 3.2; 2-2.5; 3-2.0; 4-1.6; 5-1.25; 6-1.00; 7-0.8 DIN 6-12 6-1.00; 7-0.8; 8-0.63; 9-0.5 10-0.4 11-0.32;12 0.25 DIN 10-16 10-0.4; 11-0.32; 12- 0.25 13-0.2 14-0.16; 15 - 0.125 16-0.1

ASTM Wire Penetrameter


SET A No 10.08 mm, 2-0.1,30.13 4-0.16, 5-0.2, 6-0.25 SET B No 6-0.25,7-0.33, 8- 0.4, 9-0.51, 10-0.64,11-0.81 SET C No 11-0.81, 12-1.02, 13- 1.27, 14-1.6 15-2.03 16-2.5 SET D No 16-2.5 17- 3.2 18-4.06 19-5.1 20-6.4 21 8

Wire Penetrameter Sensitivity


SENSITIVITY S = ( D / T ) * 100
S Sensitivity in % D - Dia of smallest wire seen in mm T Thickness of Job in mm

Effect of angle of radiation

RT Techniques

Single Wall Single Image


Job Film Weld

Double wall Single image


Source Radiation

RT Techniques

Double Wall Double Image


Job Film Weld

Panoramic Exposure
Source Radiation

Radiation Safety
Radiation safety is ensured by
Radiation Protection Radiation monitoring

Radiation Protection
Radiation Protection is ensured by
Undertaking RT in an enclosure Maintaining safe distances Providing local temporary enclosure around the source Retaining the source in the camera when not in use

Radiation Monitoring
Ensuring that radiation intensity is within limits Thermo Luminescent Dosage (TLD) badge is used for monitoring the dosage received by the operator TLD Badges are processed every month by BARC or its authorised agency

AWS D1.1 RT Evaluation


Gap between defects
w e l d s i z e

* Pl refer to codes for details

AWS D1.1 RT Evaluation

* Pl refer to codes for details

RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS

INTER-PASS SLAG INCLUSIONS

RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS

SLAG INCLUSION

RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS

SLAG INCLUSION

RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS

CLUSTER PORES

RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS

LACK OF PENETRATION

RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS

PORES

RADIOGRAPHIC INDICATIONS

WORM HOLE

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