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Particle Technology is that branch of science and engineering dealing with the production, handling, modification and use

of a wide variety of particulate materials, both wet and dry, in sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters.

Particle Technology deals with bulk storage, crushing and grinding, particle size separation, such as sieving, qualitative separation such as magnetic separation and or electrostatic precipitation, fluidization, flocculation, particle size analysis, powder metallurgy, nanotechnology, particle characterization by shape and others.

Cement Sugar Milk Mineral processing Food Fertilizer Wastewater treatment

Particle size distribution, classification, screening and sieving, mechanism of size reduction machinery for crushing and grinding, pneumatic and hydraulic conveying, screw, vibrating, belt conveyors and elevators Fluidization, mixing and agitation, Flow pattern and baffles, rate of mixing and power consumption Agglomeration phenomena and its application e.g. granulation, pelletization, tabling and storage; dust explosion Filtration: Mechanism of filtration. Filter media. Flow through filter cake and/or cloth. Cake resistance and relation between thickness of cake and volume of filtrate. Studies of different types of Filters.

Richardson J.F., Coulson Particle Technology and Separation Processes Vol-II. Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering, VoL.6 by McCabe, Smith, Harriot.

Once the composition, T, P of a fluid are specified, its physical properties (density, viscosity etc. are defined But solid study is different and complicated

Different geometrical arrangements that are possible Defining completely the physical state of the material.

Composition, Size and Shape Composition

determines density, conductivity. Particle may be porous or consist of continuous matrix in which small particles of a second material are distributed Determines surface per unit volume Rate at which a particle will settle in a fluid



regular, irregular, spherical or cubic Regular shape can be defined by math equation, irregular cannot Irregular shape properties are expressed in terms of characteristics of regular shaped particles

Large quantities of solids are dealt in industry and it is necessary to define the system as a whole Necessary to know the mean particle size and distribution of particle sizes to represent the behaviour of particulate mass as a whole.

Size Reduction Size enlargemen Mixing of 2 or more solids Separation of a mixture into its components according to their size

Interactions between the particles and surrounding fluid sometimes is of little significance e.g. filtration

characterisation of the porous mass as a whole is the principal feature particles are in physical contact with adjoining particles and there is little relative movement between the particles.

But in some cases its quite dominating e.g sedimentation

each particle is completely surrounded by fluid and is free to move relative to other particles Only very simple cases are capable of a precise theoretical analysis

Stokes law is practical for isolated particle moving at very low velocity Some empirical laws are based on correction of Stokes' law

Simplest shape of particle is a sphere In sphere orientation does not have to be considered Size of an irregular shaped particle is defined in terms of size of an equivalent sphere

Several definitions depend on the measurement of a particle in a particular orientation. Thus Ferets statistical diameter is the mean distance apart of two parallel lines which are tangential to the particle in an arbitrarily fixed direction, irrespective of the orientation of each particle coming up for inspection.

Measure of Particle shape = surface area of sphere of same volume as particle/surface area of particle

Include whether particle is

crystalline or amorphous Porous Roughness of its surface Presence of adsorbed films on surface

Measurement of particle size and of particle size distribution is a highly specialised topic, and considerable skill is needed in the making of accurate measurements and in their interpretation reference should be made to a specialised text, and that of ALLEN, T.: Particle Size Measurement, Volumes 1 and 2 . 5th edn. (Chapman and Hall, London, 1997)

No attempt is made to give a detailed account or critical assessment of the various methods of measuring particle size, which may be seen from Figure below to cover a range of 107 in linear dimension, or 1021 in volume! The ability to make accurate and reliable measurements of particle size is acquired only after many years of practical experimental experience.

A wide range of measuring techniques is available both for single particles and for systems of particles. In practice, each method is applicable to a finite range of sizes and gives a particular equivalent size, dependent on the nature of the method. The principles of some of the chief methods are now considered together with an indication of the size range to which they are applicable.

Sieve analysis may be carried out using a nest of sieves, each lower sieve being of smaller aperture size. The sieves may either be mounted on a vibrator, which should be designed to give a degree of vertical movement in addition to the horizontal vibration, or may be hand shaken. Whether or not a particle passes through an aperture depends not only upon
its size, but also on its orientation at the surface of the screen

Mesh no. = No. of Squares per linear inch

The sizing is based purely on the linear dimensions of the particle and the lower limit of size which can be used is determined by two principal factors.

The first is that the proportion of free space on the screen surface becomes very small as the size of the aperture is reduced. The second is that attractive forces between particles become larger at small particle sizes, and consequently particles tend to stick together and block the screen.

Sieves are available in a number of standard series. There are several standard series of screen and the sizes of the openings are determined by the thickness of wire used Commonly used are British Standard screens (B.S.S); I.M.M (Institute of Mining and Metallurgy); American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) series

If the screen contains a large proportion of material just a little larger than the maximum size of particle which will pass, its capacity is considerably reduced. Screening is generally continued either for a predetermined time or until the rate of screening falls off to a certain fixed value.

Either wet or dry In wet screening, material is washed evenly over the screen and clogging is prevented. In addition, small particles are washed off the surface of large ones. This has the obvious disadvantage, however, that it may be necessary to dry the material afterwards.

With dry screening, the material is sometimes brushed lightly over the screen so as to form a thin even sheet. It is important that any agitation is not so vigorous that size reduction occurs, because screens are usually quite fragile and easily damaged by rough treatment. In general, the larger and the more abrasive the solids the more robust is the screen required.

Microscopic examination permits measurement of the projected area of the particle and also enables an assessment to be made of its twodimensional shape using stereomicroscopes 3 dimensional Automatic methods of scanning have been developed. By using the electron microscope, the lower limit of size can be reduced to about 0.001 m.

Sedimentation and elutriation methods (>1 m) Permeability methods (>1 m) Electronic particle counters Laser diffraction analysers X-ray or photo-sedimentometers Sub-micron particle sizing