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Group Think

A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action

(Janis 1972: 9) When the desire for unanimity overcomes a groups ability to make rational assessments on all available information Can include an unquestioned belief in your moral correctness religious (give your life to God) or political (Nazi Germany) Reduces team effectiveness because it can remove the ability/need to question or validate

Group behaviour
Group Behaviour Positive and provides for trust, belonging, reliance, Resulting in being happy at work - better more efficient service Like minded people with similar ideas expectations Did not join public service to make a fortune Joined to
serve make a difference belong get self esteem (Maslow 1987)

Develop identity
Fitting-in (Baigent 2001) Surface acting that develops into deep acting (Hochschild 1983)

Culture can inclusive


Realise needs (Maslow 1987) Avoid alienation (Marx) Resisting deskilling (Braverman 1974)

Culture can be negative


Racism (Macpherson 1999) Sexism (Baigent 2008) Resist modernisation (Baigent 2007)

Outsiders seen as the


other (civvies) naive (what do they know about doing the job) deviant stereotyping (sanctions taken against groups) What are the stereotypes associated with being black? How might these affect a black male who wants to join the police? What are the stereotypes associated with women how will this effect women who want to join the fire and rescue service?

Forming a society

Jones (1994) suggests that Durkheim has an orthodox consensus view of social structures made up of norms, values and rules. Durkheim argues we learn about norms, values and rules through socialisation Norms values and rules serve the function of making social life possible Each generation of people pass on these norms, values and rules to the next (tradition) Functionalists believe in a society formed by social structures Structures that become real in their consequences (W I Thomas) The argument of functionalist is that any social process exists because they serve a function For example we have laws because they lay down the boundaries of what is acceptable in a society Durkheim uses the term social solidarity to describe how people achieve social order Social solidarity was achieved by collective standards and rules of behaviour that make the social glue that holds society together Social solidarity/order flows from consensus - the existence of shared norms, values and rules When individuals do not feel they belong in a society share the same norms and values they feel alienated a situation that Durkheim saw as anomie Mayo, recognise that workers at Hawthorn suffered from anomie they did not feel as is they belonged during his experiment he made them feel important that they belonged and therefore they were happier and worked harder.

Durkheim
A collective way of living/being can be termed a culture Cultures can be macro gender, ethnicity, class Cultures can be micro family, work, teenagers Each generation has the ability to change their culture People have a choice if they comply or not In Public Services there are two cultures
Formal Informal

Tuckman, B. (1965) 'Developmental sequence in small groups', Psychological Bulletin 63(6):

Forming
Identifying the task and how to accomplish it. Deciding what is acceptable group behaviour and how to handle group conflict Deciding what information needs to be gathered to tackle the task Abstract conceptual discussions or some members' impatience with these discussions No clear focus on task or problem as evidenced by irrelevant discussions Complaining about organisational problems and barriers to accomplishing the task instead of focusing on the task

Storming
Arguing among group members, even if they agree on the issues Choosing sides within the group, bids for power, drawing divisional lines Tension, jealousy, lack of unity, and a perceived hierarchy Establishing unobtainable goals, increased concerns about too much work to be done.

Norming
Conflict avoidance in an attempt to promote harmony Friendlier discussions on a more personal level, more discussions about the dynamics of the group, begin to confide in one another More of a sense of group cohesion and esprit, more commonality of goals Establishing and maintaining realistic group parameters for behaviour and performance Organising how team will sanction transgressors

Performing
Constructively changing one's self-actually changing for the betterment of the group. Ability to avoid group conflict and, should conflict arise, being able to work through it. Much closer identity with the group, understanding each other's strengths and weaknesses.