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Automation Connections ISA EXPO 2006

H.M. Hashemian President


Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits

Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation Knoxville, Tennessee USA


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Problems and Solutions with Temperature and Pressure Measurements in Industrial Processes
Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits

H. M. Hashemian (Hash)

President of AMS, founded in 1977, specializing in testing process instrumentation. Fellow of ISA. Author of over 100 publications including technical papers, books, book chapters, journal articles. Most recent books:

Sensor Performance and Reliability, published by ISA in 2005 Maintenance of Process Instrumentation in Nuclear Power Plants, published by Spinger-Verlag in 2006

Latest patent, Integrated System for Verifying the Performance and Health of Instruments and Processes, awarded July 2005.

Chairman, project leader or author of ISA, IEC, and IAEA committees writing standards, guidelines, and reports on process instrumentation.

Process Instrumentation
Sensors
RTDs Thermocouples Pressure Sensors

Process-To-Sensor Interface
Thermowell for Temperature Sensors Sensing lines/impulse line for pressure sensors

Cables and Connectors


I&C Cables Other Cables

Examples of Problems Encountered with RTDs


Response Time Breaking Extension Wires Low Insulation Resistance Accuracy Determination Extrapolation Errors Installation Errors

RTD Sensing Element

l R s

Lead Wires
Weld

Mandrel Platinum Element

RTD Assembly

Extension Leads

Seal

Weld to External Lead Wires Sheath

Typical RTDs

Insulation Material

Air Gap in RTD Thermowell

AMS-DWG RTD062CS

RTD

THERMOWELL

FILL MATERIAL

RTD Insertion Experiment

FEELER GAGE

RTD

SPRING METAL PLATES

CLOSEUP OF AIR GAP RTD

Gap Size (inches)

Response Time (sec)

0 0.006

6.3 7.1 8.0 8.9 9.5 10.5


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THERMOWELL

0.010 0.016

AIR GAP

0.022 0.035

RTD Response Time


RTD Response Time as a Function of Test Media Response Time (sec)

RTD
1 2 3

Water (1 meter/sec) 2.0 2.7 3.6

Air (5 meters/sec) 14.4 22.0 24.0

RTD Response Time With and Without Thermowell Response Time (sec) in water at 1 meter/sec RTD No. Well Well #1 Well #2 Well #3

1
2 3

1.7
1.8 1.9

4.8
3.6 4.4

5.2
4.1 4.9

6.0
4.6 5.9
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Examples of Expected Response Time vs. Actual Response Time

Expected

Measured

6 Seconds
4 Seconds 6 Seconds

21 Seconds
12 Seconds 37 Seconds

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RTD Accuracy
Source of Error Bath Stability and Uniformity SPRT Accuracy and Drift/Yr. Measurement Equipment for SPRT (Accuracy and Drift) Measurement Equipment for RTD (Accuracy and Drift) Hysteresis Repeatability Self-Heating Fitting Errors Estimated Value (C) 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01

Combining the Errors 0.02 + 0.01 + 0.01 + = 0.12 C (0.02)2 + (0.01)2 + ... = 0.05C
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Maximum Error = RSS Error =

Errors in RTD Readings for Errors for Extrapolation Extrapolationfrom from 200 C to to 350 C 200C 350C
Temperature (C) Tag 03 9A 9C 13A 13C 15A 15C 16A 21 Measured 350.660 350.651 350.640 350.646 350.640 350.636 350.632 350.630 350.618 Extrapolated 350.481 350.507 350.447 350.443 350.347 350.748 350.758 350.783 350.208 Extrapolation Error (C) 0.179 0.145 0.194 0.203 0.292 0.112 0.127 0.153 0.410

2002 Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS)

AMS Proprietary/Duplication Prohibited

R - 93 13

Examples of Potential Installation Errors


Source of Error Stem Losses EMF Errors Lead-wire Effects Insulation Resistance Cause Large temperature gradient between the two ends of a sensor Dissimilar metals in the RTD circuit that fall in a large temperature gradient Difference in lead-wire resistances in threewire RTDs Low element-to-sheath resistance (shunting error)

Contact Resistance
Stratification Error

Bad or loose connections in temperature sensor circuit


Temperature gradient in fluid or gas streams as a result of incomplete mixing
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Illustration of RTD Stem Loss


AMS-DWG RTD034D

Insulation

Cool Medium 50C

Hot Fluid Hot Fluid 320C

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Problems with Thermocouples


Accuracy Moisture in Sheath Insertion into Thermowell Cross-Connected Wires Secondary Junction Inhomogeneity

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LCSR Test for Detection of Cross Connected Thermocouples


JDH120A-01A

1.2 1.0 0.8


RESPONSE LCSR ON CROSS WIRED THERMOCOUPLE

0.6

0.4
0.2 0.0 0 2

NORMAL LCSR TRANSIENT

4
TIME (SEC)

10

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Secondary Junction in Thermocouples

DWM139A-02D

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Response Time (sec)

10

10C

10T

10B

4C

5C

6C

7T 7C

8T 8C

4B

5B

6B

7B

8B

9C

4T

5T

6T

9T

9B

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12

Thermocouple Tag Number


18

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Thermocouple Inhomogeneity Test Results


AMS-DWG THC014C

INHOMOGENEITY

THERMOCOUPLE

CHART SPEED: 6MM/SEC

TEST RESULTS

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LCSR Results of In-Situ Testing of Thermocouple Inhomogeneties

5 Seconds

10

15

a) Without Inhomogeneity

5 Seconds

10

15

b) With Inhomogeneity

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Case Study

Erroneous Data from Thermocouple Results in Fire in an Industrial Facility

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Correct Thermocouple Configuration

Connector

+
Indicator (V)

+ TC = 100 C V = VH + VC + VI

+
TH = 600 C

T1 = 20 C

VH = 27.828 mv

DT = 500 C DT = 80 C DT = 20 C
600 C
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VC = 4.249 mv
VI = 1.019 mv

V H+VC + VT = 33.096

Reverse Polarity

+
Indicator (V)

T/C Connector + + TH = 600 C

T1 = 20 C

TC = 100 C

VH = -27.828 mv
Reversing the leads at the indicator makes V positive, but it is the wrong thing to do. Why?

DT = 500 C DT = 80 C DT = 20 C

VC = 4.249 mv
VI = 1.019 mv V = - 22.56

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Example of RTD Cabling in a Nuclear Power Plant


AMS-DWG RTD073B

Penetration Protection Cabinet Terminal Box Pull Box with Outside Inside in Control Room at ASP Containment Containment Butt Splices

RTD

150' Cable

375' Cable

175' Cable

20' Pigtail

0.4 TERMINAL BOX FIELD PENETRATION RTD LOCATION IN THE FIELD

REFLECTION COEFFICIENT (RHO)

0.2

RTD

WIRES 2 & 3 0.0 WIRES 1 & 2 TEST LEAD

-0.2 -50 50 150 DISTANCE (METERS) 250 350

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Results of TDR Test of a Four-Wire RTD with an Open Compensation Lead

0.5

12

3 4

1,2
2,3

RTD

3,4
-0.5 -200

200

400

600

800

1000

Distance (Feet)

25

Principle of Indenter Operation

Applied Force
250

Modulus (lb/in.)

200 150 100 50 0

Cable Support Block

Instrumented Anvil

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Hours
CSPE Jacket, EPR Insulated Cable

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Cable Depot

PLANT PIPING

CABLE BASKET

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Examples of Pressure Transmitter Problems


Sensing Line Blockages Shared Sensing Lines Mechanical Snubbers Used in Sensing Lines Damping Pots Oil Loss Hydrogen Permeation Problem Nonlinearity in Force-Balance Transmitters Loose Strain Gauge

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Process to Sensor Connections

PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

EQUALIZING VALVE

ISOLATION VALVE

ORIFICE PLATE

SENSING LINES ROOT VALVES FLUID

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Potential Sensing Line Problems


Blockages Air or Gas Freezing Improper line-up or seating of isolation and equalizing valves Leakage in the sensing lines due to valve problems

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Effect of Sensing Line Blockage on Dynamic Response


SG A
1E+0
1E-1 PSD (in. w.c.^2/Hz) 1E-2 1E-3 1E-4

SLB005A-02A

LT-475

1E-5
1E-6 1E-7 0.01

LT-474

0.1

10

Frequency (Hz)

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Dynamic Response When Oil Has Leaked Out of Cell


JPF025A-04AS JPF025A-01B

112

RCS Flow (%)

FT-445 96 FT-444 Expected Response

80 125

RCS Flow (%)

120
115 110 105

FT-424 Expected Response

FT-425 10:30 AM 11:51 AM


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Capacitance Cell Pressure Transmitter


AMS-DWG PXT084LS

Fill Tubes / Leadwires

Metallic Capacitance Plates Convolution Plate

Sensing Diaphragm

Oil Fill Glass Insulators High Pressure Side Low Pressure Side

Isolating Diaphragm

Ceramic Insert

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In-Plant Detection of a Failed Rosemount Transmitter

Descriptor Skewness 5 th Moment Variance Ratio Skewness Ratio 5 th Moment Ratio

Normal Value 0.0 0.0 1.0

LT518 0.02 0.07 1.03 1.00 1.00

LT528 0.23 2.12 1.25 1.06 1.21

LT538 0.08 0.70 1.09 1.01 1.04

LT548 0.05 0.36 1.06 1.02 1.06

1.0
1.0

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Questions and Discussion

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Related Resources from ISA


Sensor Performance and Reliability, H.M. Hashemian, published by ISA, 2005.

Phone: (919) 549-8411 E-mail Address: info@isa.org


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