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PUMPS

An energy conservation device, converting kinetic energy (velocity) into pressure energy.

TYPES
Pumps can be classified as, 1. Centrifugal Pumps 2. Positive displacement pump

WORKING PRINCIPLE

Amount of energy given to the liquid is directly proportional to the velocity at the edge or the van tip of the impeller.

GENERAL COMPONENTS

A centrifugal pump has two components.

1.Rotating components 2.Stationary components.

Rotating components
Rotating components are:

1.Impeller 2.Shaft 3.Coupling

STATIONARY COMPONENTS
1. CASING 2. CASING COVER 3. BEARINGS 4. SUCTION NOZZEL 5. DISCHARGE NOZZEL

WORKING MECHANISM THEORY


1. Axial entrance at suction Eye. 2. Radial spreading to channel between vanes. 3. Flow through the Impeller. 4. Tangential departure from Impeller tip. 5. Flow from volute to pump discharge.

IMPELLER TYPES
1. Closed type Impeller 2. Open type Impeller

IMPORTAN TERMS

Capacity
The flow rate with which the liquid is moved or pushed by the pump to the desired point in the process.

Head
The head is used to measure the kinetic energy created by the pumps.

OR

Head is a measurement of the height of a liquid column that the pump could creat from the kinetic energy imparted to the liquid.

NPSH
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD is the total

head at the suction flange of the pumps less the vapor pressure converted to fluid column height of the liquid.

NPSH DEPRESSION
Vapor pressure is the measure of vapours entrapped or contained within the liquid. Higher vapour pressure indicates more percentage of vapours, increasing the possibility of cavitations, by reducing the NPSH.