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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

SECTION 1 SOLID WASTE: TYPES, SOURCES AND PROPERTIES Learning Objectives; At the end of this lesson, students should be able to; 1. define solid waste 2. describe different types of solid wastes 3. recognize different sources of solid wastes 4. understand and state the three physical, chemical and biological properties of solid waste

WHY THIS HAPPENS?

INTRODUCTION

Solid wastes are the wastes arising from human activities and are normally solid as opposed to liquid or gaseous and are discarded as useless or unwanted. Focused on urban waste (MSW) as opposed to agricultural, mining and industrial wastes. Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is the term applied to all the activities associated with the management of society's wastes. In medieval times, wastes discarded in the streets led to the breeding of rats and the associated fleas which carried the plague. 22 human diseases are associated to improper solid waste management. Solid wastes also have a great potential to pollute the air, soil and water. Materials Flow - The best way to reduce solid wastes is not to create them in the first place. Others methods include: decrease consumption of raw material and increase the rate of recovery of waste materials. Technological advances - Increased use of recycle materials.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Solid waste management is the control of : all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and that are discarded as useless and unwanted. storage, management of wastes until they are put into a container collection, gathering of solid wastes and recyclable materials and the transport of these materials where the collection vehicle is emptied. 50% or higher of the total cost. processing, source separated (at the home) vs. commingled (everything together) is a big issue. Includes: physical processes such as shredding and screening, removal of bulky material, and chemical and biological processes such as incineration and composting. transfer and transport, small trucks to the biggest trucks allowable disposal of solid waste, landfilling with or without attempting to recover resources.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE

DEFINITION OF SOLID WASTE

TYPES/SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE

The sources of SW in a community are generally related to land use and zoning. These wastes can be group or classified in several ways, but classifications are necessary to address effectively the complex challenges of solid waste management.

TYPES/SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE

TYPES/SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE

TYPES/SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE

TYPES/SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE

COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE

COMPONENTS OF SOLID WASTE

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID WASTE

Information on the properties of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems and management programs and plans, especially with respect to the implementation of disposal and resource and recovery options.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID WASTE

Physical composition of SW including : identification of the individual components that make SW, analysis of particle size, moisture content and density of SW. Individual Components Components that are typically make up most SW listed below have been selected because they are readily identifiable, consistent with component categories reported in the literature and are adequate for the characterization of solid wastes for most applications.

MOISTURE CONTENT

The moisture content of solid wastes usually is expressed in one of two ways. In the wet weight method of measurement, the moisture in a sample is expresses as a percentage of the wet weight of the material ; in the dry weight method, it is expressed as a percentage of the dry weight of the material. WET WEIGHT MOISTURE CONTENT In equation form, the weight moisture content is expressed as follows

M = (w-d)100 w

Where M= moisture content, % w= initial weight of sample as delivered, kg d=weight of sample after drying at 1050C, kg

Table 1 Typical data on moisture content of solid waste components


Moisture (%) Component Food wastes Paper Cardboard Plastics Textiles Rubber Leather Garden trimmings Wood Misc. Organics Glass Tin cans Nonferrous metals Ferrous metals Dirt, ashes, brick Municipal solid waste Range 50-80 4-10 4-8 1-4 6-15 1-4 8-12 30-80 15-40 10-60 1-4 2-4 2-6 2-6 6-12 15-40 Moisture (%) Typical 70 6 5 2 10 2 10 60 20 25 2 3 2 3 8 20

EXAMPLE 1

Estimate the moisture content of 100kg solid waste sample with the following composition:
Component Food waste Cardboard Plastics Garden trimmings Wood Percent by mass 15 10 10 10 5

Tin cans Paper

5 45

Solution:
1.

Set up a table to determine the dry mass of the solid waste sample using data given in Table 1
Component Food waste Percent by mass 15 Moisture content (%) 70 6 5 2 60 Dry mass, kg (based on 100kg)

Paper
Cardboard Plastics Garden trimmings

45
10 10 10

Wood
Tin cans

5
5

20
3

2.

Determine the moisture content


Moisture content =

Solution:
1.

Set up a table to determine the dry mass of the solid waste sample using data given in Table 1
Component Food waste Percent by mass 15 Moisture content (%) 70 6 5 2 60 Dry mass, kg (based on 100kg) 4.5 42.3 9.5 9.8 4.0

Paper
Cardboard Plastics Garden trimmings

45
10 10 10

Wood
Tin cans

5
5

20
3

4.0
4.9 79.0

2.

Determine the moisture content


Moisture content =

DENSITY Densities of solid wastes vary markedly with geographic location, season of the year and length of time in storage. Table 2 Typical densities for solid wastes components and mixtures
Density (kg/m3)
Component Food wastes Paper Cardboard Plastics Textiles Rubber Leather Garden trimmings Wood Misc. Organics Glass Tin cans Typical 120-480 30-130 30-80 30-130 30-100 90-200 90-260 60-225 120-320 90-360 160-480 45-160

Density (kg/m3)
Range 290 85 50 65 65 130 160 105 240 240 195 90

Typical densities for solid wastes components and mixtures


Density (kg/m3) Component Nonferrous metals Ferrous metals Dirt, ashes, brick Municipal solid waste Uncompacted Compacted (in compactor truck) In landfill (compacted normally) Typical 60-240 120-1200 320-960 90-180 180-450 Density (kg/m3) Range 160 320 480 130 300

350-550

475

600-750
In landfill

600

EXAMPLE 2

Estimate the density of a solid waste sample with the composition given in Example 1

Solution:
1.

Set up a table to determine the discarded volume of solid waste sample using the data reported in Table 2
Component Food waste Percent by mass 15 Typical density Kg/m3 290 85 50 65 105 Volume*, m3

Paper
Cardboard Plastics Garden trimmings

45
10 10 10

Wood
Tin cans

5
5

240
90

*Based on a 1000kg sample of waste

2.

Determine the density of a waste sample


Density =

Solution:
1.

Set up a table to determine the discarded volume of solid waste sample using the data reported in Table 2
Component Food waste Percent by mass 15 Typical density Kg/m3 290 85 50 65 105 Volume*, m3 0.52 5.29 2.00 1.54 0.95

Paper
Cardboard Plastics Garden trimmings

45
10 10 10

Wood
Tin cans

5
5

240
90

0.21
0.56 11.07

*Based on a 1000kg sample of waste

2.

Determine the density of a waste sample


Density =

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID WASTE

Information on the chemical composition of the components that constitute SW is important in evaluating alternate processing and recovery options. For example, the feasibility of combustion depends on the chemical composition of the solid wastes. 3 most important properties to be known are
Proximate analysis Energy content Ultimate analysis (major element)

PROXIMATE ANALYSIS

Proximate analysis for the combustible components of SW includes the following tests:
Moisture (loss of moisture when heated to 1050C for 1h) Volatile combustible matter (additional loss of weight on ignition at 9500C in a covered crucible) Fixed carbon(combustible residue left after volatile matter is removed) Ash (weight of residue after combustion in an open crucible)

ENERGY CONTENT OF SOLID WASTE COMPONENTS

Energy values may be converted to a dry basis by using


kJ/kg (dry basis)= kJ/kg x100 100-% moisture kJ/kg (ash free dry basis)= kJ/kg x100 100-% ash -% moisture

EXAMPLE 3

Estimate the energy content of a solid waste sample with the composition given in Example 1. What is the content of dry basis and ash-free dry basis?

SOLUTION : 1. Set up a table to determine the energy content of the SW sample using the data reported in Table 3.6 (Based on a 100 kg sample of waste)
Components Food wastes Paper Cardboard Plastics Garden trimmings Wood Tin cans Percent by mass 15 45 10 10 10 5 5 Total energy kJ 69,750 753,750 163,000 326,000 65,000 93,000 3,500 1,474,000

2. Compute the unit energy content Energy content (kJ/kg) =

3.Determine the energy content on dry basis a. From Example 1, the moisture content of the waste is 21.0%.

4.Determine the energy content on ash free dry basis a. Assume the ash content of the waste is equal to 5.0%.

2. Compute the unit energy content Energy content =1,474,000 kJ = 14,740 kJ/kg 100 kg

3.Determine the energy content of dry basis a. From Example 1, the moisture content of the waste is 21.0%. b.The energy on a dry basis is kJ/kg ( dry basis)=14,740 kJ/kg x 100 = 18,658 100- 21.0
4.Determine the energy content of free ash dry basis a. Assume the ash content of the waste is equal to 5.0%. b.The energy on an ash free dry basis is kJ/kg ( ash- free dry basis)=14,740 kJ/kg x 100 = 19,919 100- 5-21.0

ULTIMATE ANALYSIS

Ultimate analysis of a waste component typically involves the determination of the percent C, H, O, N, S and ash. Because of the concern over the emission of the chlorinated compounds during combustion, the determination of halogens is often included in an ultimate analysis. The results of the UA are use to characterize the chemical composition of the organic matter in SW. They are also use to define the proper mix of waste materials to achieve suitable C/N ratios for biological processes.

Chemical content

If energy values are not available approximate values may be determine

kJ/kg =337C + 1428 (H-O/8) + 9S Where C= carbon, % H = hydrogen, % O = oxygen, % S = sulfur, %

EXAMPLE 4

Derive an approximate chemical formula for the organic portion of a solid waste sample with the composition given. Use the resulting chemical composition to estimate the energy content Solution: 1. Set up a table to determine the overall composition of the waste based on 100kg sample.Moisture content given is 20.9 kg
Component C Food waste 2.16 18.4 4.18 H 0.29 2.54 0.56 Composition O 1.69 18.6 4.24 N 0.12 0.13 0.03 S 0.02 0.08 0.02 Ash 0.23 2.54 0.48

Paper
Cardboard

Plastics
Garden trimmings Wood Total

5.88
1.91 1.98 34.51

0.71
0.24 0.24 4.58

2.23
1.52 1.71 30

0.14 0.01 0.43

0.01 0.13

0.98
0.18 0.06 4.47

EXAMPLE 4
2.

Prepare a summary table of the above data


Component Carbon Hydrogen Mass,kg 34.51 4.58

Oxygen
Nitrogen Sulfur Ash

30
0.43 0.13 4.47

Solution:
3. Calculate percentage by mass
Component Carbon Hydrogen
Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Ash Total

Mass,kg 34.51 4.58 + 2.32= 6.9


30 +18.58 = 48.58 0.43 0.13 4.47 95.02

Percentage by mass 36.3 7.3


51.1 0.5 0.1 4.7 100

Moisture content given is 20.9.Convert the moisture content (given 20.9kg) to H and O a. H = 2/18(20.9) kg = 2.32 kg b. O = 16/18(20.9) kg = 18.58 kg

Solution:
Estimate the energy content of the waste kJ/kg =337C + 1428 (H-O/8) + 9S Where C= carbon, % H = hydrogen, % O = oxygen, % S = sulfur, %

Solution:
Estimate the energy content of the waste kJ/kg = 337 (36.3) + 1428 (7.3-51.1/8) + 9 (0.1) = 12, 223 + 1,303 + 9.5 = 13,546 Computations such as above are especially important where the recovery of energy from solid waste is being considered

Biological Properties

VS, volatile solids, ignition at 550 C is often used as a measure of the biodegradability of the organic fraction. An alternative is the lignin content can be used to determine biodegradability: BF = 0.83 - 0.028 LC BF is the biodegradable fraction and LC is the lignin content. Odors typically result from the anaerobic decomposition of the organic fraction. - Sulfate is reduced to sulfides and the to H2S.

ODORS

The production of odors and the generation of flies are related to the putrescible nature of the organic materials found in MSW (eg food waste) Odors can develop when solid waste are stored for long periods of time on site between collections, in transfer stations and in landfill. Typically the formation of odors results from the anaerobic decomposition of the readily decomposable organic components found in MSW. In the summertime and during all season in warm climate, fly breeding is an important consideration in the on-site storage of wastes. Flies can develop in less than 2 weeks after the eggs are laid. The life history of the common house fly from egg to adult can be described as follows:

Egg develop First stage of larval period Second stage of larval period Third stage of larval period Pupal stage Total

8-12 hrs 20 hrs 24 hrs 3 days 4-5 days 9-11 days

COMMON FLY BREEDING

House and stable flies breed in areas where moist organic matter is present. Common fly breeding sites on livestock operations include locations in and around (1) leak and spill areas; (2) animal stalls and pens, feed preparation, storage areas, near water sources; (3) hospital and maternity areas; (4) water tanks; (5) feed troughs; (6) inside and outside manure handling areas