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POWER PLANTS

AN INTRODUCTION
By
R.Mathur, B.Tech (Elect), IIT Delhi 1968

Types of Power Plants


Thermal Boiler, Steam Turbine, Generator Gas Turbine- Gas Turbine, Generator Nuclear Atomic Reactor, Steam Turbine, Generator Hydroelectric Hydro Turbine, Generator Wind Power WindMill, Generator

POWER PLANT TYPES -1


Fuel Coal / Oil / Gas

Steam
Steam Turbine GENERATOR

THERMAL

Air

Boiler
FEED CYCLE

Electrical Power

BOILER GAS TURBINE


Fuel Oil / Gas

Flue Gas

Comb ustor
Compressor Air from atmosphere Gas Turbine GENERATOR

Electrical Power BOILE R Exhaust Gas

NUCLEAR

Fuel Uranium

Steam

Atomic reactor

Steam Turbine

GENERATOR

Electrical Power
FEED CYCLE

POWER PLANT TYPES - 2

HYDRO Penstock Water reservoir

Water Turbine

GENERATOR

Electrical Power

Wind Mill

WINDMILL
GENERATOR

Electrical Power

POWER PLANT - ELECTRICAL GENERATOR

AVR ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


GENERATOR

Excitation-DC

Grid
Gen Ckt Bkr

Electrical Power 3 Ph AC

Transformer

Thermal Power Plant Main components


Boiler Fuel and Air Mixture burns to generate heat used to boil water into steam Steam Turbine Energy of steam rotates Turbine Generator mechanically coupled to Turbine, generates electrical power Condensate & FeedWater System- Condenses steam and pumps water back to Boiler

THERMAL POWER PLANT MAIN COMPONENTS

HRH Stm

HP Turbine
CRH Stm

LP Turbine

GENERATOR

CONDENSER

Electrical Power

Fuel Coal / Oil / Gas

Main Steam

FEED CYCLE Air BOILER

Thermal Power Plant

Boiler - 1

Fuel Gas , Oil, Coal Air & Flue Gas FD Fans, ID Fans, Furnace Pressure Furnace Flame Feedwater Boiler Drum, Steam generation Superheaters

Thermal Power Plant

Boiler - 2

Reheater Economizer Air-Preheaters Electro Static Precipitator (ESP) Chimney Ash Handling

Thermal Power Plant

Steam Turbine -1

Main Steam ESV, CV HP Turbine Cold Reheat Hot Reheat IP Turbine LP Turbine Condenser

Thermal Power Plant

Steam Turbine -2

HP Bypass, LP Bypass Control Fluid / Secondary Oil System Turbine Bearings Gland Seal System Lubricating Oil System Jacking Oil Turning Gear

Thermal Power Plant

Generator -1

Stator, Rotor Excitation DC Voltage , AVR Stator Cooling Water cooled DM Water Rotor cooling Hydrogen Seal Oil System

Thermal Power Plant

Generator -2

Generator Circuit Breaker Main Transformer Switchyard Grid Synchronization Auxiliary Transformer Islanded Operation

Thermal Power Plant

-Condensate & FeedCycle -1

Condenser Vaccum Condenser Cooling water System, Cooling Tower Hotwell Condensate Extraction Pumps LP Heaters Extraction Steam

Thermal Power Plant

-Condensate & FeedCycle -2

Deaerator Boiler Feed Pumps Scoop Tube HP Heaters Feedwater Control Station 1 / 3 Element Control Economizer

Gas Turbine Power Plant Main Components


Air Compressor Takes air from atmosphere through Filters and delivers at pressure Fuel Supply Gas , Oil Combustion Chamber- Fuel + air from compressor burn, generating hot flue gas Gas Turbine energy of Hot flue gas rotates gas turbine Generator-mechanically coupled to turbine, generates electrical power

Gas Turbine Power Plant Heat Recovery-Combined cycle


Exhaust Gas from GT is very hot-approx 500 Deg C WHRSG to recover energy from exhaust gas Steam from WHRSG used to drive Steam Turbine as in Thermal Power Plant Efficiency Improvement due to WHRSG Combined Cycle =Brayton Cycle for GT + Rankine Cycle for ST

PLANT OVERVIEW