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John Locke

(17th century)

Human Progress

Liberal assumptions
1) Positive view of human nature Human reason (Rationality) 2) Conviction that International relation can be cooperative rather than conflictual 3) Belief in progress

Liberalism core concern

Happiness and contentment of individual human beings

Modern constitutional state

A state that establishes rule of law that respect life of citizens right, liberty and property Constitutional states deal with other according to mutual norms.

Liberal Theory in Security Management

1) Collective Security 2) Arm Control

Sociological Liberalism

International Relations Transnational Relations

- The processes whereby international relations conducted by governments have been supplemented by relations among private individuals, groups, and societies that can and do have important consequences of the course events.

James Rosenau

High degree of transnational ties Peaceful relations Mere absence of war

Karl Deustch

If we map the patterns of communication and transactions between various groups we will get a more accurate picture of the world because it would represent actual patterns of human behaviour rather than artificial boundaries of states.

Cobweb Model
John Burton (1972)

-points to a world driven more by mutually beneficial cooperation than by antagonistic conflict. -Builds on an earlier liberal idea about the beneficial effects of cross-cutting or overlapping group memberships.

IR is not only a study of relations between national governments; IR scholars also study relations between private individuals, groups and societies. Overlapping interdependent relations between people are more cooperative than relations between states. A world with a large number of transnational networks will thus be more peaceful.

Interdependence Liberalism
It is a strand of liberal international relations thinking which argues that increased interdependence between countries reduces the chance of them engaging in conflict.

Hurting you is hurting me.

Modernization increases the level and scope of interdependence between states. Under complex interdependence, transnational actors are increasingly important, military force is less useful instrument, and welfare not securityis becoming the primary goal and concern of states. This means a world of more cooperative international relations.

Institutional Liberalism
Institutional Liberals argue that international institutions make cooperation easier and far more likely An international institution is an international organization such as NATO and the European Union. It can also be a set of rules which govern state action in particular areas such as aviation or shipping or simply called regimes.

Regime Theory
A regime is defined by Krasner as a set of explicit or implicit principles, norms rules and decision making procedures around which actors expectations convergence in a given issue-area.

International institutions promote cooperation between states and help to reduce the lack of trust and fear. Cooperation in anarchy is possible without a hegemon because there exists a convergence of expectations.
Keohane argue that international regimes can therefore increase probability of cooperation

1. Regimes provide information about the behavior of others by monitoring the behavior of members and reporting on compliance. 2. By institutionalizing cooperation, regimes can reduce the cost of reaching an agreement, regimes increase the likelihood of future cooperation 3. Regimes generate the expectation of cooperation among members. By creating the belief that interaction will continue foe the foreseeable future, regimes increase the importance of reputation and allow foe the employment of complex strategies.