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What is grammar?
Rules of a language , governing the way in which words are put together to convey meaning in different contexts. Implicit grammar
Knowing grammar at the level of use

Explicit grammar
Knowing grammar means to be able to describe and explain rules.

What does Knowing Grammar mean?

For student
Knowledge of word order Knowledge of grammatical facts and rules Knowledge of form and function Knowledge of how to link ideas in different sentences (sentence combining) Knowledge of the grammar of spoken and written sentences Knowledge of meaning of different grammatical options

For Teacher
Understand the grammar items in the syllabus and select appropriate language forms for teaching. Grade and sequence the grammar items appropriately Integrate grammar with the teaching of the language skills Select appropriate techniques for representing grammar items Identify and analyze students errors and provide feedback and correction

Place of Grammar in the Communicative Approach

Two views
Teachers who prefer to teach Accuracy first Teachers who assume that given sufficient input and opportunities to use English in purposeful communication, students will eventually acquire implicit knowledge.

Aim of teaching English

Develop both accuracy and fluency, so we should include activities focusing on grammar and on fluency.

Approaches to Grammar in CLT

Covert approach
The teacher gets the students involved in using the structure without drawing attention to grammatical rules Students attention are focused on the activity not the rules.

Overt approach
The teacher explicitly explains the rulrs when presenting the new language How to explain? Two options available: Deductive
Teacher presents the rules/pattern/generalizations and then goes on to provide practice in the application of the rules.

Inductive (discovery approach)

Students are given sample sentences containing the target forms and then the teacher guides the students into deriving the rules themselves.

Guidelines for teaching grammar within Communicative Approach

Language is rule-governed behaviour and the grammar of a language constitutes the rules by which it is governed Grammar is that part of the language the most closely resembles a habit. Teaching grammar involves in practices that result in habit formation. An aspect of this habit would be automaticity of response. Students need to have multiple opportunities to acquire the habit at the level of automatic response Correct habits need to establish form the beginning to avoid fossilization. The rules of grammar relate not merely to form but also to contexts of use. Decisions about correct grammar cannot always be determined at sentence level. They would require knowledge of the broader text within which each sentence occurs.

Grammar in KBSR & KBSM

Grammar should be incorporated into the four language skills and should be taught in context and in a meaningful way. However, teachers may also teach the grammar items specifically if they feel it is necessary to do so and later integrate them with the other skills. Two sections
Under specific grammar labels Under sentence patterns

Problems in Learning grammar

Mismatch between form and function Exceptions to the rules Interference from learners own language Lack of motivation to learn grammar.

Features of Activities that support Grammar Learning

Be meaningful relate to students own needs and therefore engage them as people Be purposeful involves doing things with language, challenging and interesting and attention grabbing. Have a social function opportunities for interaction Provide plenty of practice ample recycling and exposure Use multimedia approach use all give senses Provide variety Encourage active participation

Stages of grammar lesson

Introduction to new language through spoken or written texts

Focused practice
Explicit form-based exercises to ensure students can produce new items accurately

Communicative practice (production)

Meaningful activities to allow students to use new language in appropriate contexts REFER TO PAGE 206 FOR MORE DETAILED EXPLANATION ABOUT THE STAGES OF A GRAMMAR LESSON.

Purpose Teaching and learning strategies
Didactic approach Discovery method Story-comic approach

Flashcards Highlighter Wall chart Sliding sentence strips Words cards and pocket charts SAMPLE LESSONS ON PAGES 237 239

Focused practice
Purpose Teaching-learning materials and activities
Drills Substitution tables Jazz chants Meaningful drills Blank-filling Cuisinaire rods and etc. (See samples pg. 213 216)

Communicative practice

Purpose Teaching learning materials and activities

Problem solving Stories Songs and nursery rhymes Using personal experience Games Using visuals Poems Info. Gap activities Role play quizzes, puzzles and riddles Editing and reformulation (pg. 217 229)

Planning to teach Grammar

Systematized mapping of the grammar syllabus within a thematically conceives series of units Unit-by-unit mapping of grammar Through specific ways in which grammar supports and is supported by each language skills.