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Dr. K.C.

Leong, 2006
Lecture 2:Radiation & Conservation of Energy Requirement

(5) Transient Conduction: Lumped
Capacitance Method
by
Assoc Prof Leong Kai Choong
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
MA3003/MP3003/AE3003 Heat Transfer
Semester 1, AY 2013-2014
Read Chapter 4: Section 4-1 of the
textbook before these lecture
slides
2
At the end of these lectures, you should be able to
assess when the spatial variation of temperature of a
solid is negligible and temperature varies nearly
uniformly with time, making the lumped capacitance
analysis applicable,
calculate the time taken by a solid to reach some
temperature T or the temperature reached by a solid
at some time t,
calculate the amount of heat transferred (in J) during
the transient conduction process, and
perform general lumped capacitance calculations.
Learning Objectives
3
Transient Conduction
Solid body suddenly subjected to change in thermal
conditions at the boundary temperature varies with
space and time until steady-state.
Unsteady, time-dependent or transient heat
conduction occurs in the interim period.
We can solve general heat conduction equation for
T(x,y,z,t) in solid subject to initial and boundary
conditions.
4
t
T
c e
z
T
k
z y
T
k
y x
T
k
x
p gen
c
c
= +
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c

For example, solve
or solve
with 6 boundary conditions and 1 initial condition
T(x,y,z,t)

1

2
2
t
T
x
T
c
c
o
=
c
c
with two boundary conditions and one initial
condition T(x,t)
semi-infinite solid
5
Analytical solutions may be obtained for simple
geometries and conditions.
Such complicated solutions may be obtained
from advanced heat transfer texts such as
Carslaw, H.S. and J.C. Jaeger, Conduction of
Heat in Solids, 2
nd
ed., Oxford University
Press, London, 1959.
Ozisik, M.N., Heat Conduction, 2
nd
ed., Wiley,
New York, 1993.
6
Lumped Capacitance Method
Sudden change in thermal environment e.g.
quenching of hot metal forging in cooler liquid
(Figure 1)
Temperature of solid spatially uniform during
transient process i.e. no temperature gradients in
solid
Approximated if resistance to solid conduction is
small compared to resistance to convection
between solid and fluid.
7
Fig. 1 Cooling of a hot metal forging
Source: Incropera et al. (2007)
conv
Q

8
Temperature of forging cannot be obtained by solving heat
conduction equation. Take overall energy balance on solid
(3) exp
(2) ln
Write
0

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
u
u
u
u
=
=
u
u
= u

u
u

} }
t
Vc
hA
T T
T T
hA
Vc
t
dt
d
hA
Vc
T T
s
i i
i
s
t
s
i
conv
Q

( )
dt
dT
Vc T T hA
E E
s
st out
=
=

(1)

9
Fig. 2 Transient temperature response of lumped
capacitance solids for different time constants
Source: Incropera et al. (2007)
1/e
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
u
u
t
Vc
hA
s
i
exp
(
(
(
(

=
u
u
s
i
hA
Vc
t
exp
10
Electrical analogy can be used if we define a
thermal time constant
) 4 (
1

t t
s
t
C R Vc
hA
= = t
Analogous to voltage decay, E when charged
capacitor, C discharges through a resistor, R in a
RC circuit (See figure on next slide)
(3) Recall
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
u
u

t
Vc
hA
T T
T T
s
i i
exp
% 8 . 36
1
At
= =
u
u
t =
e
t
i
t
11
Equivalent thermal circuit for a lumped
capacitance solid
12
0 = +
RC
E
dt
dE
For RC electric circuit,
Solution with initial condition E(0) = E
0
is
RC t
e E E
/
0

=
For transient conduction (lumped capacitance
model), total energy transfer Q in J occurring up
to some time t can be calculated by
( ) | |
t i
t t
s conv
t Vc
dt hA dt Q Q
t u =
u = =
} }
/ exp 1
0 0

t t
C R t
i
e
/
u = u
analogous to
s
t
hA
Vc
= t N.B.
13
Q E
E Q
E E E E
st
st
st out g in
= A
A = +
A = +
or 0 0
Alternatively, use conservation of energy over finite
time interval, At = t - 0 = t
( ) ( )
( ) | |
( ) | |
t i st
t i
i i st
t Vc E Q
t Vc
Vc T T Vc E
t u = A =
t u =
u u = = A
/ exp 1 Hence,
/ exp 1
For quenching, Q is positive (E
out
)
For heating, Q is negative. (E
in
)
t
t
i
e
t
u = u
/
14
Which thermal system below can be
modelled as a lumped capacitance system?
Source: engel, Y.A. and Ghajar, A.J., Heat and Mass Transfer:
Fundamentals and Applications, 4
th
Ed. (SI Units), McGraw-Hill, 2011.
15
Validity of Lumped Capacitance Method
Assume steady-state conditions of Fig. 3 to develop
the conditions under which the lumped capacitance
method may be used.

16
Fig. 3 Effect of Biot number on steady-state temperature
distribution in a plane wall with surface convection
Source: Incropera et al. (2007)
conv
Q

cond
Q

( ) ( )

= T T hA T T
L
kA
s s s 2 , 2 , 1 ,
( )
( )
Bi

/ 1
/
2 ,
2 , 1 ,
=
=
=

k
hL
R
R
hA
kA L
T T
T T
conv
cond
s
s s
17
Dimensionless number Biot (pronounced as Bee-oh)
number can be interpreted as
( )
( )
conv
cond
R
R
hA
kA L
k
hL
= =
/ 1
/
Bi
Note that k is the thermal conductivity of the solid, not the
fluid as in Nusselt number,
Nu hL/k to be introduced in convection.
Bi << 1 conduction resistance << convection
resistance. Uniform temp assumption is reasonable.
See Fig. 4 for an alternative interpretation of the Biot
number and Fig. 5 for the transient temp distribution as a
function of Bi.
Lumped capacitance approach is valid if Bi < 0.1
18
Fig. 4 The Biot number can be viewed as the ratio of
convection (not convection resistance) at the
surface to conduction (not conduction resistance)
within the body
( )
( )
T
L
A
k
T hA
k
hL
or
R
R
hA
kA L
k
hL
conv
cond
A
A
=
= =
Bi
/ 1
/
Bi
Illustration from engel and Ghajar (2011)
19
Born 21 April 1774, Paris
Died 3 February 1862, Paris
Nationality
French
physicist, astronomer, and
mathematician.
Fields
Professor of Mathematics at
Beauvais (1797) and
Professor of Physics at
Collge de France, Paris
(1800)
Doctoral student William Ritchie
Known for Biot-Savart law
Influences Louis Pasteur
Jean-Baptiste Biot
20
Fig. 5 Transient temperature distributions for different Biot
numbers in a plane wall cooled by convection
Source: Incropera et al. (2007)
21
For arbitrarily-shaped bodies, characteristic
length is defined as
s
c
A
V
L
? length axial of
cylinder size finite and side of cube a for is What
sphere for 3 /
cylinder long for 2 /
wall plane for 2 /
L
L L
r L
r L
L L
c
c
c
c
=
=
=
Show that
22
( ) ) 5 ( Fo Bi exp =

=
u
u

T T
T T
i i
c
k
y dif f usivit thermal
L
t
mber Fourier nu
L
t
k
hL
Vc
t hA
c
c
c s

= o
o

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
|
.
|

\
|
=

, and
time ess dimensionl is Fo , where
Fo Bi
2
2
Dimensionless temperature solution of Equation
(3) can be re-written as
23
Example 1: Transient Response of a Thermocouple
Thermocouple used to measure temperature of a gas
stream flowing in a duct
Approximate junction as a sphere (D = 1 mm).
Actual thermocouples come in standard wire sizes denoted
as American Wire Gage (a.w.g.), e.g.
a.w.g. 18 denotes 1.024 mm diameter wire
a.w.g. 24 denotes 0.5106 mm diameter wire
a.w.g. 30 denotes 0.1270 mm diameter wire
24
Thermocouple in this example is Type K made of
chromel and alumel wires
c = 0.4 kJ/kgK, k = 30 W/ mK, = 8600 kg/m
3

Convection coefficient, h = 280 W/m
2
K
chromel
alumel
Gas
stream
25
Find:
(a) time required for thermocouple to reach 98% of
the applied temperature difference, i.e.
( )

= T T T t T
i
100
2
) (
(b) time constant or response time of thermocouple
26
Solution:
Must check Bi to see whether we can use lumped
capacitance approach.
m 10 67 . 1
3
10 0.5

3 4
3
4
4 -
3 -
2
3
=

=
=
t
t
= =
r
r
r
A
V
L
s
c
( )( )
1 . 0 10 56 . 1
30
10 67 . 1 280
Bi
3 -
-4
< =

= =
k
hL

c
27
( )( )( )
s 03 . 8
2
100
ln
280
10 4 . 0 10 67 . 1 8600

ln ln
3 4
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
u
u
=
u
u
=

i c i
s
h
c L
hA
Vc
t
(a) Time required to reach 98% of applied
temperature difference is given by
(b) Time constant is
( )( )( )
s 05 . 2
280
10 4 . 0 10 67 . 1 8600
3 4
=

=

= t

h
c L
hA
Vc
c
s
28
Magnitude of time constant indicates how sensitive
the thermocouple is to a change in temperature.
A smaller bead diameter implies a more sensitive
thermocouple.
29
Example 2: Annealing of Steel Balls

Carbon steel balls ( = 7833 kg/m
3
, k = 54 W/mK, c =
465 J/kgK, and o = 1.474 x 10
-6
m
2
/s) 8 mm in
diameter are annealed by heating them first to 900C in
a furnace and then allowing them to cool slowly to
100C in ambient air at 35C.
a) If the average heat transfer coefficient is 75 W/m
2
K,
determine how long the annealing process will take.
b) If 2500 balls are to be annealed per hour, determine
the total rate of heat transfer from the balls to the
ambient air.
30
min 2.7 s 163 ln
0013 . 0
valid is analysis e capacitanc lumped
1 . 0 0018 . 0 Bi
= =


=
= =

< = =

T T
T T
hA
Vc
t
A
V
L
k
hL
i
s
s
c
c
( )
kW 543
J/h 1,952,500
J/ball 781 balls/h 2500
ball per J 781
=
=
= =
= = =
Q n Q
T T mc E Q
ball
i f st

Assumptions:
(1) Constant properties (2) Constant and uniform h
a)

b)
Source: engel and Ghajar (2011)
31
Example 3: Freezing of Biological Tissue

A 1-cm cube of biological tissue is to be frozen in a
freezer at 80C. The properties of the tissue has the
same properties as liquid water at 25C. The convective
heat transfer coefficient is 10 W/m
2
K, and the tissue is
initially at 25C.
Determine the time it takes to freeze the tissue
completely.
The freezing temperature is taken as 0C. The properties
of liquid water at 25C may be taken as: Thermal
conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, density of 997 kg/m
3
, and
specific heat of 4.18 kJ/kgK.
32
Schematic:
valid is Model e Capacitanc Lumped
1 . 0 028 . 0
6
Bi

< = = =
k
ha
k
hL
c
ANALYSIS:
min 3.15 s 189 ln = =
u
u
=
i
s
hA
Vc
t
6 6
2
3
a
a
a
A
V
L
s
c
= = =
33
General Lumped Capacitance Analysis
Transient conduction commonly initiated by
convection heat transfer - simple lumped
capacitance analysis.
In general, thermal conditions in solid may be
simultaneously influenced by convection, radiation,
surface heat flux and internal heat generation as
shown in Fig. 6.
34
Fig. 6 Control surface for general lumped
capacitance analysis
s
q

rad
q

conv
q

35
Applying conservation of energy at any instant t :
( ) ( ) | | ) 7 (
) , (
4 4
,
dt
dT
Vc A T T T T h E A q
r c s sur g h s s
= co + +

Eq. (7) - non- linear, first-order, non-


homogeneous ODE with no exact solution.
( ) ) 6 (
) , ( ,
dt
dT
Vc A q q E A q
r c s rad conv g h s s
= + +

36
Simplified cases:
Case 1: Radiation exchange only
( )
dt
dT
Vc T T A
sur
r s
= co
4 4
,
} }

=

co
T
T
t
r s
i
sur
T T
dT
dt
Vc
A
4 4
0
,
(8)
Time required to reach temperature T
i sur
i sur
sur
sur
r s
T T
T T
T T
T T
T A
Vc
t
sur

+

+
o co

= ln ln
4
3
,

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

sur
i
sur
T
T
T
T
1 1
tan tan 2
(9)
Cannot obtain T in terms of t explicitly.
37
For T
sur
= 0 i.e. radiation to deep space,
(10)
1 1
3
3 3
,
|
|
.
|

\
|

o c

=
i
T T A
Vc
t
r s
Case 2: Convection, surface heat flux and heat
generation without radiation where h is assumed
to be independent of time.
Exact solution to the linear, first-order non-
homogeneous differential equation of the form
( ) ( ) | |


+
= u +
u
T T
Vc E A q b Vc hA a where
b a
dt
d
g h s s c s
and
, /
0
, ,

38
) exp(
) / (
) / (
, for ng Substituti
). exp(
), ( to 0 from g integratin and variables Separating
0
ng Substituti
tion transforma g introducin by ity inhomogene Eliminate
'
'
'
' '
'
'
'
at
a b T T
a b T T
at
to t
a
dt
d
a
b
i
i
i
=


u u
=
u
u
u u
= u +
u
u u

39
Hence,
( ) ( ) | | ) 11 ( exp 1
/
exp at
T T
a b
at
T T
T T
i i

+ =

When b = 0, Eq. (11) reduces to Eq. (3) introduced


previously and yields T = T
i
at t = 0.
) 3 ( exp
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

t
Vc
hA
T T
T T
s
i
( ). / becomes Eq.(11) , As a b T T t =

See Example 5.2 of Incropera et al. (2007)
Some Review Questions
1. For which solid is the lumped capacitance analysis more
likely to be applicable: an actual apple or a golden apple of
the same size? Why?
2. For what kind of bodies made of the same material is the
lumped capacitance analysis more likely to be applicable:
slender ones or well-rounded ones of the same volume?
3. What is the significance of the thermal time constant?
4. To what electrical circuit is the lumped capacitance system
analogous?
5. Why is it necessary to employ the concept of characteristic
length in lumped capacitance analysis?
6. What are the physical significances of the Biot and Fourier
numbers?




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