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Problem Solving training with 8D for suppliers

Owner: Quality / AHO Author: F. Germain July 2011


This training includes guiding notes in the notes page

Copyright Autoliv Inc., All Rights Reserved

Content Why this training? What is 8D process? The 8D Problem Solving Process How to ensure 8D is a living process? How to behave as a manager during application of 8D
process? What did you learn from this training?

ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 2

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Why this training?


During this training you will learn:

What is the 8D process and its Disciplines What activities are carried out during each step How to behave when involved in 8D problem solving? How to ensure a living 8D process?

ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 3

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The 8D Process

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Aims at systematically guiding the teams thoughts and


actions to solve a problem. Can be used for any problem great or small Is especially efficient with problems requiring a Team effort Is required by Autoliv to solve:

Supplier / Customer issues, Improving deviation on [CC]/[SC], Repeated internal issues

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8D Problem Solving Process


The 8 Disciplines needed to solve problems using a team
D1
Form a Team

D5
Choose and Implement Corrective Actions

D2
Describe the Problem

D6
Evaluate Results

D3
Implement Containment Actions

D7
Prevent Recurrence

D4
Identify Root Cause

D8
Congratulate the Team

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D1
Form a Team

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Team creation results from a thinking process to get the best


result with:

Good Team leader - Who is the best person to lead this team? Does
this person have time to lead the team? The right people in the team - Whose people (skills and ability) are needed based on the type of problem? (customer / supplier internal external specialist?) Recommended team size (from 3 to 7 people)

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D2
Describe the Problem

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Apply Go & See approach to find out evidences Use Pictures / Sketches of actual / desired condition Compare OK and NOT OK conditions Describe it in your view and the customers point of view by
answering the following questions:

What is the problem, Where was the problem discovered, When did the problem occur, Who discovered the problem, Why is it a problem? How many problems were detected? / How often did the problem occur?

Use method IS / IS NOT to clarify and narrow conditions when


problems do and dont occur (use Swap method to clarify conditions)

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D3
Implement Containment Actions
Form a Team Describe the Problem Implement Containment Actions Identify Root Cause Choose Implement Corrective Actions Evaluate Results Prevent Recurrence Congratulate the Team

First Reaction to a Problem is to Protect the Customer

Contain the Problem:

From Problem start point To Problem Stop Point (First certified good
shipment to the customer) Put in Quarantine all potential NOK products / components

Sort products:

Where appropriate, with instructions adequate to detect problem


(efficiency statistically validated)

Use sorting results to improve knowledge of the problem


ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 8 Copyright Autoliv Inc., All Rights Reserved

D4
Identify Root Cause

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Identify the root cause is key because:


Problem will be solved by fixing root-cause(s) Problem will not re-occur if true root cause(s) are corrected

Effective root cause analysis results in the ability to turn the problem ON and OFF at will

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D4
Identify Root Cause

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

HOW? 2 tracks for investigation:

Why did the problem occur?


To understand the conditions leading to the failure mode To evaluate the occurrence

Why was the problem not detected? To understand what failed in the detection process To determine how to improve detection if occurrence cannot be
corrected

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D4
Identify Root Cause

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Which method? What type of tool?


appearance

Go & See: watch & review the process / the condition for default
Already some evidence to support root cause?

Use 5 WHY method and link to the evidences

Lack of evidence with repeated occurrence?


Use PPS (Practical Problem Solving technique) to reveal conditions as evidence of root cause (Swap; IS, IS NOT; ) Then 5 Why

Lack of evidence and problem is new:


Use Fish Bone diagram (5M) + Brainstorming Then 5 WHY
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ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 11

D5
Choose and Implement Corrective Actions
Form a Team Describe the Problem Implement Containment Actions Identify Root Cause Choose Implement Corrective Actions Evaluate Results Prevent Recurrence Congratulate the Team

The purpose of D5 is to choose, validate & implement


corrective actions:

Choose corrective action to fix root causes identified at D4 to


improve Detection and/or to Prevent occurence Confirm that corrective action is effective with no negative side effects Plan actions by assigning responsibles & target date for completion (PDCA) Define evaluation criteria to validate corrective action efficiency

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D6
Evaluate Results

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Check that corrective action implemented is giving the


expected result: By Go & See and reviewing the actual value on criteria defined in D5

How long time did it take and how many parts did we produce without seeing the problem? If the problem re-occurred, was it successfully detected again?

If corrective action is not giving expected result:

Problem reoccurred anyway, return to D4 as the true root cause may not be known The target is not achieved, but significant improvements were attained; significant, discuss if the improved level can be accepted; if not return to D4

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D7
Prevent Recurrence

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

How to ensure no re-occurrence:

on similar product / process at company level or as supply base level

Step 7.1: prevent repeat problem on similar product process Step 7.2: Ensure sustainable control of corrective actions
=> 8D team is responsible Step 7.3: prevent future re-occurrence; drive sustainable systemic changes Step 7.4: Capture and share knowledge; check systemic changes are applied => Management is responsible
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ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 14

D7
Prevent Recurrence

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Step 7.1: Look across similar products, machines, Processes

Carry out Read Across: Share problem with your peer if relevant (Locally Regionally Globally) Look at similar products, processes or areas (Go & See) Evaluate if problem likely to occur with same consequences
(Occurrence / Severity); Evaluate if corrective actions are required. (use Read across matrix ) Implement same corrective actions or customize according to local situation Review relevant documentation in the identified areas to be updated (D&PFMEA, Control Plan, SWI, )

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D7
Prevent Recurrence

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Step 7.2 : Ensure sustainable control of correctives actions

Cover all activities to ensure the change will be sustainable in


long term: Detailed implementation of corrective actions at site level Creation or modification of relevant documentation (SWI, check list,
SPC, preventive maintenance,) Risk monitoring on each product / process line

To manage implementation of corrective actions it is


recommended to use a Yokoten matrix at site level / regional / global level if required

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D7
Prevent Recurrence

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

At this step of 8D, the team carried out main actions to


prevent recurrence under conditions similar to what was experienced

However, this does not necessarily ensure that the problem


will not re-occur

Corrective actions need to be implemented at systemic level


to address root cause

At this stage, involvement of management is mandatory to


identify systemic root causes and provide guidance on necessary improvements
ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 17 Copyright Autoliv Inc., All Rights Reserved

D7
Prevent Recurrence

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Step 7.3: Prevent long term recurrence by identifying systemic root cause(s):

Why was the problem not prevented in the manufacturing phase Why was the customer not protected from the problem? Why was the problem not predicted in the planning/development? Perform a 5 Why analysis until recurrence prevention is reached
(Never re-happenning) Employ cross-functionnal team with management representatives from all concerned functions Management representatives will be the owners of the analysis outcomes

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D7
Prevent Recurrence

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

5 Why on systemic root cause analysis


Why not Prevented? Problem Statement Why not Protected? Why Why Why Why Why Why not Predicted? Why Why Why Why Why Why Detection Root Cause and evidence Occurrence Root Cause and evidence Why

Systemic Root Cause and evidence

Systemic root cause analysis shall be performed as a


minimum on all Cat A issues
ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 19 Copyright Autoliv Inc., All Rights Reserved

D7
Prevent Recurrence

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Step 7.4: Learn Lesson from problem by fixing the systemic root causes

Document Lesson (What did we learn from that problem? What


systemic corrective action is needed) in our core processes and documents (Master documents, FMEA, Design Guidelines, Standards as ...)? Learn the Lesson by implementing systemic corrective actions Train your team to the updated standard Check Lessons are shared and new updated processes and standards are applied

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D8
Congratulate the Team

Form a Team

Describe the Problem

Implement Containment Actions

Identify Root Cause

Choose Implement Corrective Actions

Evaluate Results

Prevent Recurrence

Congratulate the Team

Why?

To reinforce behavior and value of team work To recognize success To give a clear sign to the team that process ended and closure is
possible. => CONGRATULATE THE TEAM

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Key management points to check during 8D process


D1 Form a Team Find out how the team leader is and what additional resources they may need. What progress has been achieved so far versus expected?

D2 Describe the Problem

In what way is the Problem Statement complete or incomplete? Check for What, When, Where, How many What would be considered by the team as success, and how will it be measured.

D3 How complete is the containment plan and what are the results to date? Did Implement Containment Actions containment plan allow to improve Problem knowledge? D4 Identify Root Cause Read Why the problem happened from the technical root cause analysis. Check that the root causes identified allow to turn ON / OFF the problem. Check whether root causes were likely at the time problem occurred.

D5 Choose & Implement How Was it verified that the Corrective Action (C/A) turns the problem Off? What other C/As were considered? What criteria is used to conclude that C/A is effective. Corrective Actions
D6 Evaluate Results D7 Prevent Recurrence D8 Congratulate the Team What is the progress on implementing the C/A plan? Review the data available to support effectivenesss of corrective action. Would you decide to stop 100% check based on these Data? What are the details of the Yokoten plan / Read Accross? Were priorities defined in the plan? (Quality/Timing/Cost) is the Yokoten plan tracking application of corrective actions. What are systemic root causes identified and addressed? Did you select most important topics to be processed for LL? Did you set priorities, allocate ressources & follow-up implementation?

How have the teams efforts and results been recognized? Are you ready to close the 8D?
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How to ensure 8D process is a living process?


Management follow up on 8D process is essential

Autoliv Problem Solving Database is one tool for tracking open 8Ds until closure Make visible status of 8D on site through 8D Visual Board Set-up 8D review Board and carry out regular management 8D reviews and track progress Set priorities to the teams when needed

For efficiency reasons 8D process shall meet Target Lead Time

8D Lead Time target is usually defined by the customer Required Lead Time for 8D in Autoliv is: D1 & 2: hours after problem has been notified D3 / from 3 to 24 hours max after claim notified D4 / 5 days max after claim issued D5 / 6: 10 days max after claim issued unless agreed upon differently D7 & 8: 60 days max after claim issued

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What did you learn from this training?


Can you answer these questions:

What is 8D and its Disciplines What activities are carried out during each step How to behave when involved in 8D problem solving? How to ensure a living 8D process?

ALV-FG/Mar2011/8D Problem Solving Training for suppliers ver 1.1 - 24

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