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Circular pitch: Distance measured along the circumference of the pitch circle from a point on one tooth to the

corresponding point on the adjacent tooth p d


T

Width of space: Tooth space along the pitch circle


Addendum: Radial height of a tooth above the pitch circle
(normally 1 module)

Dedendum: Radial depth of tooth below the pitch circle


(normally 1.25 module)

Clearance: Radial difference between the addendum and the dedendum of a tooth Tooth thickness: Tooth thickness measured along the pitch circle Top land: Surface of the top of the tooth Bottom land: Surface of the bottom of the tooth between the adjacent fillets Face: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the top land Flank: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the bottom land including fillet Fillet: Curved portion of the tooth flank at the root circle

Base circle: Imaginary circle from which the involute curve of the tooth profile is generated. Pressure line/Line of action: Common tangent to the base circles of mating gears. It is also common normal at the point of contact of the mating gears Force is transmitted from the driving gear to the driven gear on this line

Pressure angle: Angle between the pressure line and the common tangent the pitch circles Backlash: Clearance between mating teeth measured at the pitch circle Involute: Locus of a point on a straight line which rolls without slipping on the circumference of a circle Curve generated by unwrapping a taut string from a cylinder

Arc of Contact: Locus of a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of two mating gears Arc of Approach: Portion of the arc of contact from the beginning of engagement to the pitch point

Arc of Recess: Portion of the arc of contact from the pitch point to the end of engagement
Module(m) : Ratio of pitch diameter in mm to the number of teeth
m d T
T d

Diametral pitch (P): Number of teeth per unit lengths of the pitch circle diameter in inches P

Velocity ratio(VR): Ration of angular velocity of the driven to the angular velocity of driver N d T VR 2 2 1 1 1 N 1 d 2 T2 d1, d2: Pitch diameter of driver and driven T1,T2: Number of teeth of driver and driven N1,N2: Angular velocity(rpm) of driver and driven 1, 2: Angular velocity (rad/s) of driver and driven
p

d1 N1 d 2 N 2
d 1
T1

d 2
T2

Principles of Transmission and Conjugate Action


When a pair of mating gear teeth act against each other, rotary motion is produced which is transmitted from the driver to the driven gear If such a pair of gears have tooth profiles which are so designed that a constant angular velocity ratio is produced and maintained during meshing, the two gears are said to have conjugate action and the tooth profiles are said to have conjugate curves
1 constant 2

In other words, conjugate action is assured if

where

1: angular velocity of the driver component of the mating pair 2: angular velocity of the driven component of the mating pair

If the tooth profile of one member of the pair is given, it is possible to construct the tooth profile of the other member in order to have conjugate action when the gears mesh. However the mostly commonly used curves are the family of involute and cycloidal curves 4

Law of Gearing: In order to have a constant angular velocity ratio, the tooth curves must be so shaped that the common normal to the tooth profiles at the point of contact will always pass through the pitch point, irrespective of the position of the contact during the course of action
Figure shows two curved surfaces which are in contact with each other. Body 1 with centre at O1 and having angular velocity of 1 is pushing body 2 of which the centre is at O2. This produces rotary motion and body 2 rotates with an angular velocity of 2 . The point of contact at this instant is at Q where the two surfaces are tangent to each other.

The common tangent to the curves is T-T and the transmission of forces takes place along the common normal N-N which is also called the line of action
Circles drawn through P, having centers at O1 and O2 are termed as pitch circles

For producing constant angular velocity ratio, the curved profiles of the mating teeth must be such that the law of gearing is satisfied 5

In case of involute profile, all points of contact takes place on the same straight line(line N-N in figure) which means that the point Q which is the instantaneous point of contact at any position , moves up and down along the line N-N In figure, the lines QM1 and QM2 represent the linear velocity vectors of the two gears at the instantaneous point Q. Since the two bodies are rigid, the common point Q can have only one velocity component on the line of action N-N and this is represented by Qn. When resolved QM1 and QM2 have

components Qt1 and Qt2 respectively on the


common tangent T-T. The vector difference Qt1 and Qt2 gives the relative sliding velocity

Qt1 Qt 2 PQ(1 2 )
When the contact takes places at the pitch point P, QM1 = QM2, hence t1 - t2 = 0 . i.e for pure rolling motion, the point of contact lie on the line of center 6

QM 1 QM 2 , 2 O1Q O2Q

2 QM 2 O1Q 1 O2Q QM 1

From similar triangles QM1n and O1QR

QM 1 Qn O1Q O1 R
From similar triangles QM2n and O2QS

QM 2 Qn O2Q O2 S

2 Qn O1 R O1 R 1 O2 S Qn O2 S
Again O1PR and O2PS are similar triangle, from which we have

2 O1 R O1 P r1 1 O2 S O2 P r2
Inferences: When a pair of curved surfaces are in direct contact transmitting conjugate motion, the angular velocities of the two bodies are inversely proportional to the segments into which the line of centers is cut by the common normal 7 To produce constant angular velocity ratio, the common normal must intersect the line of centers at a particular, immovable point