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What Is Consumer Behavior?

Activities people undertake when obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services

Consumer Influences

Organizational Influences


Consumer Behavior


Consumer Influences
Culture CULTURAL Subculture
Membership Social Class Reference Aspirational groups Opinion leaders Age & life-cycle

Organizational Influences
Brand Product Features Advertising Word of Mouth Promotions Retail Displays Price Quality Service Store Ambiance Convenience Loyalty Programs Packaging Product Availability



Family Occupation Roles and Economic Status situation

Lifestyle Motivation Personality & Perception self-concept


Learning Beliefs and attitudes

How you decide you want to buy

How you use the product How you store the product in your home Who uses the product How much you consume

How you get rid of remaining product How much you throw away after use

Other products you consider buying

Where you buy How you pay for product

How you transport product home

How product compares with expectations

If you resell items yourself or through a consignment store

How you recycle some products

Overall Model of Consumer Behavior

External Influences Culture Subculture Demographics Social status Reference groups Family Marketing Activities Internal Influences Perception Learning Memory Motives Personality Emotions Attitudes Decision Processes

Problem Recognition
Information Search Self-Concept & Learning Alt Eval & Selection Outlet select & Purchase

Post-purchase Processes

What Is Consumer Behavior?

Activities people undertake when obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services A field of study consumer activities that focuses on

Scope goes beyond just why and how people buy to include Consumption Analysis


Maslows Hierarchy


Process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to form a cohesive picture about an entity Perceptions affect consumer behavior

However, remember that individuals can perceive the same entity in different ways


Selective Attention: Receive some messages and

screen out the rest

An average person is exposed to 1500 ads or brand messages a day Most of these are screened out; So, how do marketers capture mind space?

People are more likely to notice stimuli that relate to current needs People are more likely to notice stimuli they anticipate People are more likely to notice stimuli that deviate relatively larger than others

Marketers must bypass attention filters; provide unexpected stimuli (salesperson, sudden offers)


Selective Distortion: Tendency to interpret / distort information to be consistent with prior brand and product beliefs

Taste tests: Blind taste tests showed equal split; Open tests showed preferences Can work to the advantage of marketers of strong brands

A car may seem to drive smoother A beer may taste better


Selective Retention: Though people fail to register much information, they retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs

Remember good points about products we like and forget good points about competing products Works to the advantage of strong brands Explains why marketers repeat messages for reinforcement


The sum total of learned beliefs,values,and customs that serve to direct the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.

Characteristics of culture

Culture is a learned response. Culture includes inculcated values. Culture is a social phenomenon. Culture is gratifying and continues for a long time. Cultures are similar and yet different. Culture prescribes the ideal standards of behavior.

Culture & consumer behavior

Culture is learned:
Culture I learned at childhood itself from the social environment. Often we are children play and enact the real life situation of social & culture ritual.

Three distinct forms of culture learning.

Formal learning: what the elder family member

teach the younger one how to behave.


Informal learning: what the child learns primarily by

imitating the behavior of selected others such as family, friend, or TV heroes.

Technical learning: In which teacher instruct the

child in an educational environment about what should be done, how it should be done, and why it should be done.

Culture Is Learned Issues

Enculturation: the learning of ones own culture.

Acculturation: The learning of a new or foreign culture.

Language and symbols: Marketers must choose

appropriate symbols in advertising.


A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting

of a series of steps (multiple behavior) occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated over time. Rituals extend over the human life cycle Marketers realize that rituals often involve products.

Culture & consumer behavior

Sharing of culture: Culture is transferred

through family, schools, houses of worship, and media

Culture is dynamic:
Change occur due to Technology, Migration, Population shift, Resource shortages, wars, Changing values etc. Also known as TREND . ( Ex, Fashion, Automobile, Foods, Entertainment, Lifestyles, women work outside the home are few Hot object to study.

Diversity by Indian Railways

Indian village by Amul

Emerging Culture

Ritual & Tradition

Indian Core Values

Family orientation Saving orientation Festivities Shopping as a ritual Mythology Food Habits

Changing cultural trends in Indian urban markets

Achievement orientation Work Ethic Material Success Middle of the road approach to tradition Impulse Gratification Use of hi-tech products


Sub-culture is defined as a distinct cultural group

that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society. Ex. Nationality, social class, Religion, Language, Age, Gender.

Examples of Major Sub-cultural Categories

CATEGORIES Nationality Religion Geographic region

Race Age Gender Occupation Social class

EXAMPLES Greek, Italian, Russian Catholic, Hindu, Mormon Eastern, Southern, Southwestern
African American, Asian, Caucasian Teenagers, Xers, elderly Female, male Bus driver, cook, scientist Lower, middle, upper