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2G-3G Cell Reselection & Handover

ZTE university

Learning goals

To know interworking between 2G-3G networks To master strategies of reselection & handover between 2G-3G networks To know algorithms of cell reselection & handover between 2G-3G networks

Contents

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking 2G-3G reselection & handover strategies 2G-3G reselection algorithms 2G-3G handover algorithms 2G-3G load-balance handover algorithms

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking


Definition of UTRAN

adjacent cells
Define cells out of BSC Define adjacent cell for

2G covered area

cell reselection/ handover

2Quater system

MS moves to 2G network after originating a call in 3G network

message
MS reads system

3G covered area

message Measurement of UTRAN systems

Setting of 2G-3G

interworking parameters
Handover & reselection

Make measurement of 3G network at the its edge area

parameters

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking

2quater message The precondition for system to send message is that data configuration must meet one of the following criteria: The cell is configured with 3G adjacent cells; The cell supports NC2 function (network controls cell reselection);
2quater content Description of FDD(TDD) at UTRAN side Description of 3G measurement parameters Description of GPRS 3G measurement parameters Network control measurement parameters Information of cells adjacent to UTRAN FDD(TDD)

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking (extended functions of inter-working)

IUR-G interface

To realize wireless integration of 2G and 3G networks To reach inter-system balance based on information of GSM cell capacity and load To select handover target cell based on information of GSM cell capacity and load To select target cell of RAB redirection based on information of GSM cell capacity and load

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking (extended functions of inter-working)


Enhanced
UE

IUR-G-based 2G-3G handover flow (resource request)


NODE B MEASUREMENT REPORT SRNC CN BSC

RADIO RESOURCE PREPARE RADIO RESOURCE PREPARE READY


HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND RELOCATION REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE RELOCATION COMMAND HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER COMPLETE IU RELEASE COMMAND IU RELEASE COMPLETE RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST RADIO LINK DELETION REPONSE

Conditions for 2G-3G inter-working (extended functions of inter-working)


Selection

of target cell of RAB redirection based on information of GSM

cell capacity and load


UE BSC SRNC CN BSC RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST RNC Decides to perform Relocation (Directed Retry) RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE

RADIO RESOURCE PREPARE RADIO RESOURCE PREPARE READY


HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND RELOCATION REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE RELOCATION COMMAND HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER COMPLETE IU RELEASE COMMAND IU RELEASE COMPLETE

Contents

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking 2G-3G reselection & handover strategies 2G-3G reselection algorithms 2G-3G handover algorithms 2G-3G load-balance handover algorithms

2G-3G interworking strategies


Reselection
PLMN selection/cell reselection
2G-3G interworking occurs when UE is in idle mode

Handover
CS handover/PS handover

When subscriber originates service, 2G-3G interworking occurs during the service connection between UE and mobile networks. The service falls into two types: CS handoverCS PS handoverPS

2G-3G interworking strategies


GSM/GPRSCS service/ low-rate PS service WCDMACS service/visual service/ medium-rate PS service

Areas of high value Whole network coverage

Key areas

coverage capacity

GSM covers the whole area GSM faces heavy capacity load

WCDMA covers key areas WCDMA is idle; need to explore subscribers

Relation between GSM and WCDMA at the initial state: WCDMA focuses on coverage and tries to form complete coverage with the help of GSM; GSM reduce its load pressure with the help of WCDMA.

Actual capacity

Constructed capacity

Actual capacity

Constructed capacity

2G-3G interworking strategies


In initial phase of network, 3G subscribers should choose 3G network preferably.

2G-3G interworking strategies:

Only when UE leaves 3G-covered area , will it perform 3G-2G cell reselection; once it returns to 3G-covered area, it will start 2G-3G cell reselection. In order to ensure the continuity of speech, 3G-2G handover should be supported. CS service which is being performed in 2G network doesnt need handover to 3G network, so as to reduce call drops due to UTRAN handover (hard handover). In order to guarantee PS subscribers satisfaction, bi-directional handover of PS service is recommended.

Contents

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking 2G-3G reselection & handover strategies 2G-3G reselection algorithms 2G-3G handover algorithms 2G-3G load-balance handover algorithms

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-PLMN selection/reselection


UE

can select and roam between 2G and 3G networks through selecting PLMNMCC+MNC , and there is no need to upgrade 2G network.
Whether

3G and 2G adopt the same PLMN-ID, the strategy of preferably selecting 3G network can be realized.
3G and 2G adopt different PLMN-ID
Set 3G network to be home networkHPLMN,UE searches and makes reselection periodically after it switches to 2G network VPLMN.

3G and 2G adopt the same PLMN-ID

Set 3G network with the

preferred radio access technology Access Technology, then UE will preferably adopt 3G to make radio access when it selects PLMN.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-PLMN selection/reselection

PLMN selection & reselection


3G

PLMN selection
RPLMN
PLMN selection after UE is powered Change of PLMN ie. reselection, which occurs User Controlled PLMN Selectorduring cell reselection

and 2G networks are configured with different IDs during network planning;
HPLMN

HPLMN

(home network) of USIM is set to be 3G when an account is opened;


Set

with Access Technology in USIM

Operator Controlled PLMN Selector with Access Technology in USIM

USIM PLMN PLMN with good signal quality (in reselection interval random order) when an account is Other PLMN [in order of signal quality (high-low)] opened; note there is an hysteresis of 6mins. Histeresis of 6minsafter UE resides in GSM network, it has to wait for at least 6mins before it can return to 3G network.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-cell selection/reselection


Requirements for 2G network equipment
Cell reselection is dependent on subscribers satisfaction; as long as the

UE is within 3G network coverage, it can access 3G network


immediately.
This algorithm requires 2G-3G cell reselection in the whole network, so

2G network needs to be upgraded to some extent. Requirements for 2G network equipment

Wireless controllers at 2G sites

They should support the reselection threshold parameters of cells configured with broadcast UTRAN system. They should support configuration of 3G adjacent cells.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-cell selection/reselection


Cell Cell

selection: select the cell with the best signal in current network;

reselection: as signals of the serving cell (in which UE resides) and its adjacent cells change/deteriorate, UE needs to select a new cell with better signal to reside.
S principle not satisfied, keep searching cells

Confirm primary scrambling code of cell

Reside in original cell

N Y Normal residence

PLMA selection

Search cell

Read broadcast channel

S principle

Cell is non-HPLMN

N
Keep searching cells

Reside in cell at random call barring

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-cell selection/reselection-S principle


S-principle is

used to judge whether a cells signal RxLev and

RxQual are suitable for UE to redside in the cell.

Formula:
Squal = Qqualmeas Qqualmin Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas Qrxlevmin Compansation

If
For FDD: Squal > 0 & Srxlev > 0 For TDD: Srxlev > 0

then UE will take the cell as a suitable one and reside in it.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-cell selection/reselection -reselection parameter 1


Cell

reselection flow in idle mode & key parameters:

Param eter

Meaning

Value range
0-15

Qsearch Search for 3G cells if signal level is below (0-7) or _I above (8-15) threshold 0 = - 98 dBm, 1 = - 94 dBm, , 6 = - 74 dBm, 7 = (always) 8 = - 78 dBm, 9 = - 74 dBm, , 14 = - 54 dBm, 15 = (never). Default value = (never).

Location: 3G adjacent cell list and cell reselection parameters are described in system broadcast message SI2quaterand SI2ter which is sent on BCCH or extended BCCH.

Function: to control the adjacent cell measurement and reselection process under UE idle mode.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-cell selection/reselection-reselection parameter 2


Cell

reselection flow in idle mode & key parameters:


Meaning

Parameter

Value range
0-15

FDD_Qoffse Applies an offset to RLA_C for cell re-selection to access t technology/mode XXX (one or more)0 = - (always select a cell if acceptable), 1 = -28 dB, 2 = -24 dB, , 15 = 28 dB.Default value = 0 dB. FDD_Qmin A minimum threshold for Ec/No for UTRAN FDD cell reselection,0= -20dB,1=-6dB, 2= -18dB, 3= -8dB, 4= -16dB, 5= 10dB, 6= -14dB, 7= -12dB.Default value= -12dB.

0-7

FDD_RSCPmin

and FDD_Qmin_Offset are first added in version 3GPP R6, currently they are not supported in system.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-cell selection/reselection -reselection parameter 2


Application
These

of FDD_Qoffset and FDD_Qmin

two parameters control inter-system cell reselection process. When a UE satisfies all the following conditions, it can make reselection to UTRAN adjacent cells. RSCP >= FDD_Qoffset + RLA_C RSCP >= FDD_Qoffset + RLA_n Ec/No >= FDD_Qmin-FDD_Qmin_Offset RSCP>= FDD_RSCP_threshold

Notes:
2G-3G cell reselection is not allowed within 5s after 3G-2G reselection; if more than one 3G cell satisfies the conditions, UE shall select the cell with the largest RSCP value.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-suggestions

Principle of field strength

Only when the field strength of 3G network is guaranteed, will reselection to 3G occur. Normally, in 3G covered areas with weak field strength and the marginal areas overlapped by 3G and GSM networks,this principle shall be considered first. On condition that the principle of field strength is satisfied, selection to WCDMA should be as soon as possible, so as to provide subscribers with high-end services. In areas continuouly covered by WCDMA network, this principle shall be considered first. Dual-mode terminal consumes more power in performing intersystem signal measurement, so this principle shall be fully considered when we deploy networks with overlapped coverage areas.

Principle of time efficiency

Principle of electricity efficiency

2G-3G Reselection algorithms-cell reselection PS

PBCCH supported in BSS

PSI3quarter sends parameters related to inter-system cell reselection (3G adjacent cell information, measurement and control parameters of cell reselection) to MS. Packet Cell Change Order or Packet Measurement Order send parameters related to inter-system cell reselection (3G adjacent cell information, measurement and control parameters of cell reselection) to MS; these parameters will be used in PS cell reselection process. Meaning
Search for 3G cells if signal level below threshold (0-7): - 98, - 94, , - 74 dBm, (always) or above threshold (8-15):- 78, - 74, , - 54 dBm, (never). Default value = (never). Applies an offset to RLA_P for cell re-selection to access technology/mode XXX (one or more), 0 = - (always select a cell if acceptable), 1 = -28 dB, 2 = -24 dB, , 15 = 28 dB. Default value = 0 dBm.

PBCCH not supported in BSS / PBCCH not configured

parameter
Qsearch_P

Value range
0-15

FDD_ GPRS_ Qoffset

0-15

2G-3G Reselection algorithms -NCCR

Explanation of NC2/NCCR

It supports different cell reselection parameters in PS service to realize cell reselection of packet idle mode and packet transmission mode. Advantage: it makes full use of available network information to make reasonable judgment and realize optimized distribution of network services; it reduces the useless cell reselection performed by MS, and improves TBF transmission efficiency.
Meaning of value MS operations

Network_ControlOrder

NC0
NC1

Controlled by normal MS
Controlled by MS which reports MRs Controlled by network

MS executes autonomous cell reselection


MS sends MRs to network; MS continues cell reselection.

NC2

MS sends MRs to network, and realizes cell reselection only based on the reselection order from network. Only when cell reselection is triggered by failure of sending downlink signalling or random access, will MS execute autonomous cell reselection.

2G-3G Reselection algorithms -NACC

Explanation of NC2/NCCR

3GPP R5 stipulates NACCs ability to support inter-BSC and UTRAN services.

Realization ofNC2/NCCR

BSC and RNC can collect information of external cells through Gb (lur-g) interface and RIM process. (Currently we can only realize external NACC through Gb interface and RIM process.)
BSC/RNC 1 CN
RAN Information Request

BSC/RNC 2

Master BSC enables external cells to start RAN Information Send process through RAN Information Request, so as to transmit the system information of external cells to the serving cell.

Contents

Conditions for 2G-3G inter-working 2G-3G reselection & handover strategies 2G-3G reselection algorithms 2G-3G handover algorithms 2G-3G load-balance handover algorithms

2G-3G handover algorithms-3G->GSM

For 3G-GSM CS handover, main requirements stay with 3G network; for GSM network, attention should be paid to the following:

BSSAP signaling Handover Request at A interface should at least support R99 (version), which means it should adapt to the changes of coding mode of Cell Identifier (Serving) which carries 3G serving cell ID; Ignore the RF value (6 , 7) in classmark2 which is carried in BSSAP signaling Handover Request; For the encrypted algorithm sent by GSM MSC, even the encryption function is not enabled in BSS, it can also ignore the encrypted algorithm and perform the following handover process. When BSS sends HANDOVER REQUEST ACK to GSM MSC, Chosen Encryption Algorithm IE must contain the specific encryption mode, whether encryption function is enabled or not. Currently GSM-WCDMA and WCDMA-GSM PS handover is not supported in iBSC.

2G-3G handover algorithms--3G>GSM

Signaling flow of 3G-GSM CS handover


UE RNC 3G MSC RELOCATION REQUIRED PREPARE HANDOVER HANDOVER REQUEST PREPARE HANDOVER RESPONSE HANDOVER REQUEST ACK 2G MSC BSC

RELOCATION COMMAND HANDOVER COMMAND

HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE SEND END SIGNAL REQUEST SEND END SIGNAL RESPONSE HANDOVER COMPLETE

RELEASE COMMAND RELEASE COMPLETE

2G-3G handover algorithms-GSM >3G

GSM cell collects information of 3G adjacent cells and measurement parameters.


BSC broadcasts SI 2quater on BCCH or extended BCCH; MS may receive Measurement Information in downlink SACCH sent by BSC during a call.

Messages

to be collected
Network resource optimization HO due to service Network resource optimization HO due to service

by MS
Description of 3G adjacent cell parameters Configuration of 3G adjacent cells Parameters of adjacent cell measurement Handover parameters

HO due to coverage

HO due to coverage

HO due to coverage

3G initial stage

3G expansion stage

3G mature stage

2G-3G handover algorithms-GSM ->3G HO parameters


Parameter
Qsearch_C

Meaning
Search for 3G cells if signal level below threshold (0-7): - 98, - 94, , - 74 dBm, (always) or above threshold (8-15): - 78, - 74, , - 54 dBm, (never) Indicates the Qsearch value to be used in connected mode before Qsearch_C is received, 0 = use Qsearch_I, 1 = (always). Default value = use Qsearch_I. Indicates if 3G cells may be searched when BSIC decoding is required, 0 = no, 1 = yes Default value = yes

Value range
0-15

Qsearch_C_Ini tial

0/1

3G_SEARCH_ PRIO

0/1

Besides the important parameters listed above, some other parameters are also sent to MS in the system messages, such as: FDD_REP_QUANT measurement of quantity, RSCP or Ec/No REPORT_TYPEtype of MR, MR or EMR;

2G-3G handover algorithms- GSM ->3G HO parameters

Signaling flow of GSM-3G CS handover


RNC 3G MSC PREPARE HANDOVER REQUEST PREPARE HANDOVER RESPONSE IAM ACM RELOCATION DETECT RELOCATION COMPLETE PROCESS SIGNALLING SEND END SIGNAL ANM RELEASE RELEASE COMPLETE 2G MSC BSC MS HANDOVER REQUIRED

RELOCATION REQUEST RELOCATION RESPONSE ack.

HANDOVER COMMAND

HANDOVER COMMAND

2G-3G handover algorithms-strategy of network selection priority


The strategy is to decide which network shall be prioritized for handover.

To decide target cell through processing of MRs and the strategy of network selection priority :

MSC controls strategy of network selection priority

HANDOVER REQUEST carries Service Handover field, which is used to indicate handover strategy for BSC in the following handover process.

BSC controls the strategy of network selection priority

Based on the configuration principles set in OMCR, BSC decides which network shall be prioritized for handover according to the strategy of network selection priority, which can be set in OMCR as well.

Both ways can be adopted:


Prioritize WCDMA cells Prioritize GSM cells

Whats more, if both WCDMA and TD-SCDMA adjacent cells are available at the same time, the priority of WCDMA and TD-SCDMA can be decided through parameter FDD/TDD handoverFDDTDDPrio at iBSC side.

Contents

Conditions for 2G-3G interworking 2G-3G reselection & handover strategies 2G-3G reselection algorithms 2G-3G handover algorithms 2G-3G load-balance handover algorithms

Load-balance handover algorithms- directedretry handover process


Signaling connection establishment request

UE

Signaling connection establishment reject

UTRAN

Signaling establishment fails due to lack of resource in 3G network; 3G is redirected to be 2G network; UE starts access again in 2G network without target cell defined.

To support directed-retry, the switch DrInd shall be open at iBSC OMCR.

Load-balance handover algorithms- traffic handover process


Assignment request Success response to assignment request Handover request

CN

UTRAN

When RNC receives RAB assignment message, if CN

requires handover of corresponding services to 2G


system, UTRAN handover process will be started, which is 3G-2G handover, thus 3G network performance will be optimized.

For 3G-GSM CS handoverrequirements stay with WCDMA network.

Load-balance handover algorithms- handover due to serving cell load


Assignment request

UTRAN

Assignment failure

CN

Service establishment fails due to lack of resource in 3G network; if its 2G-supported CS service or low-rate PS service, 3G will appoint suitable 2G cell, and CN will start handover to the appointed 2G cell.

iBSC sends LOAD INDICATION BSSAPto MSC periodically.

Load-balance handover algorithmscomparative analysis of handover algorithms


Methods Voice histeresis Success rate Influence to 3G network Application scenario

Directed-retry

Long

Low

Light

Signalling establishment failure CN requests handover of service to 2G network after service establishment success. Cell with light congestion

Service handover

Short

High

Serious

Handover for load balance

Short

High

Serious

Others avoidance of problems

Solution A+B of TDD

When GSM cells are configured with TD adjacent cells, halt or restart may occur to MS due to flaws in some terminal chips. Solution Aconfigure a GSM cell with an FDD adjacent cell and a TDD adjacent cell at the same time; when MS discovers there is FDD adjacent cell in SI2quater, it will not read the information of TDD adjacent cell, so that abnormal phenomena will not occur to MS when it receives information of TDD adjacent cell. Solution Bset parameter NR_OF_TDD_CELLS=31 in SI2quater to prevent MS entering endless-loop when it reads SI2quater message, so as to avoid abnormal phenomena of MS.

There are two solutions to the above problem:

Solution A and solution B are directed at MS chips with different flaws, but they can exist mutually, so they can be used together to solve chip problems. We call this solution A+B Method: change TDD handover allowed to Not allowed at iBSC.

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