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Classification of research:

Qualitative and Quantitative


Descriptions of bias
Misleading information in the industry

Examples of

WindTrap Warmup Welcome to Hafod Housing Association! KIOTO

What is research?

A careful, systematic process of collecting, analysing, interpreting data in order to increase our understand of phenomena or a problem about which we are interested or concerned.

Research Process

identifying a problem setting research questions gathering data related to the problem analyse and interpreting data to support or refute hypothesis or resolve questions

Classification of research:
This classification is based on the way data is collected

Qualitative research (generative) Quantitative research (evaluative)

Qualitative Research:

Qualitative research aims at explaining complex phenomena through verbal descriptions rather than testing hypothesis with numbers.
seeks answers to a question collects evidence interviewer interacts with the respondent methodically uses a pre-set of procedures to answer questions produces findings that were not determined in advance does not impose generalised rules generates ideas and concepts collects information about the values, opinions of particular sectors of population.


Quantitative Research:

Quantitative research aims at researching, testing hypothesis with numerical values.


produces statistical data data stored and retrieved mathematically reliability generalizability causality -cause and effect a big sample of data is collected minimal bias

What is Bias?
Bias is a type of systematic error that can influence research outcomes. Some subjects are less prone to bias involvement but its presence is universal.

How misleading( biased) statistics can be created?

using a biased sample population for surveys using biased questions in your survey asking the wrong questions using misleading graphics making your results more precise making referrals to respected professions and people in a society, magazines or academic institutions.

Descriptions of Bias

Research bias Design bias Selection/ Sample bias omission bias Inclusive bias Procedural bias Measurement bias Interviewer bias Response bias Reporting bias

The mini budget kit has been put together for the intention of supplying enough power for one or two energy-saving light bulbs and perhaps a small radio too. This has been designed with the 'hard to please' customers in mind. Using all the best quality components available we have put together an ideal wind turbine system. 2,000.00 inc VAT 1,799.00 inc VAT.


Natural, uses wind power Sensible approach for sustainability Savings of two bulbs or a small radio Mobile
Cost of buying it Insulation of it Can you put it in your garden( planning permission, hazards) ? Functioning life and guarantees Emotive words Energy savings of the two bulbs in a month or a year?


With under floor heating, you can use every square metre of your home the way you want to use it. A plumber can easily remove your radiators. Look through any magazine and you will notice that pictures of quality bathrooms, kitchens and lounges never show radiators. We believe that radiators are inefficient, expensive to maintain and take up valuable wall space; interior designers know this and avoid them whenever possible. Radiators result in a stuffy, uncomfortable atmosphere and promote heat loss through windows, walls, ceilings and roofs. The result is wasted energy, and wasted money.


Leaves more space on walls for decorations Sofas and other furniture can be stores somewhere desired. Big size rooms/lounges may need more than just one radiator.


Both just as effective, the difference is one heats upwards whereas the other outwards. May need to install a higher pump rate radiator Specific design and devices may be required which can increase costs. Slow heating response

Welcome to Hafod Housing Association!

Tenant satisfaction survey Back in November 2009 Hafod sent out a STATUS questionnaire to a third of our tenants to find out how satisfied you are with your home and the services you get from us. We had a good response from you and can now report back on the findings. 89% of tenants are satisfied with the service delivered by Hafod. This has gone up from 85% in 2006 when this survey was last carried out. 86% of tenants are satisfied with the repairs and maintenance service we deliver, up from 80% in 2006. we will now aim to reduce the 9.9% who are dissatisfied

Figure 2

Figure 1

Survey shows that HHA is interested to know whether or not their tenants are satisfied with the services they are getting.

Survey is ambiguous. It is not clear what they mean by saying taking into account everything... The terminology is not determined, so it is open to misunderstandings and inaccurate results. The aim of reducing 9.9% who are dissatisfied is leaving 0.1% out since 89% is satisfied! How are they going to reduce them, by eviction? Third of their tenants does not give any indication of how many people participated in the survey.

Right now you're probably paying far too much on energy bills the good news however, is you no longer have to... The government's Feed-in Tariff recently announced a payment of 41.3 p/kWh for electricity your household generates using a Solar Power system - for the next 25 years! In addition, you could typically earn 1,000 each year from a Solar Plus system There has never been a better time to take advantage of limitless solar energy that's available - all year round. It doesn't just mean we're doing what's right for the planet, but it now offers a significant return on investment. For example a 2.5kW PV Solar Power System on your roof could provide: Earn 900 each year - TAX FREE - on energy you generate PLUS - reduce your own energy costs by 140 per year


Good news as far as the savings and returns are concerned. It will also contribute to a sustainable planet


It is not clear if the amount paid by The Government would go up at all. limitless solar energy all year around sounds good but it is not true as it can only store energy during the day and there is hardly sunshine in winter Hidden information i.e. cost of purchasing, its maintenance and installation requirement (any expected roof work), possible increased home insurance premium it may even affect the roof structure if it is not installed properly. convincing images (sterling on the photovoltaic cells) and wording (we're doing what's right for the planet, but it now offers a significant return on investment) used.