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# Lecture-16

Jet Propulsion

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## Department of Mechanical Engineering

LIFT THRUST

DRAG

WEIGHT

THRUST Produced by the engine, and acts in the forward direction. Thrust must be greater than or equal to the effects of drag in order for flight to begin or be sustained.

DRAG - The force that tends to hold an aircraft back. Drag is caused by the disruption of the air about the wings, fuselage or body, and all protruding objects on the aircraft. Drag resists motion.
LIFT- The force that acts, in an upward direction, to support the aircraft in the air. It counteracts the effects of weight. Lift must be greater than or equal to weight if flight is to be sustained. WEIGHT- The force of gravity acting downward on the aircraft and everything on the aircraft.
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## Vertical Axis Center of Gravity

Longitudinal Axis

Lateral Axis
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Slats (retracted)

Aileron
Flaps (retracted) Rudder

Horizontal Stabilizer
Landing Gear/ Undercarriage Wings/Main Planes Vertical Stabilizer/Fin Fuselage Elevator
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Airfoil Section

Camber
The curvature of the surface
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## Mean Camber Line

A Line equidistant from the upper and lower surfaces
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Chord Line
A straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge
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Relative Wind
The airflow that is always opposite to the Flight Path

Angle of Attack
The angle between the Chord Line and the Relative Wind
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## Center of Gravity (CG)

The point where all the weight forces act
The balance point of the airplane
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Wing Span
The distance from wing tip to wing tip

Wing Tip
The outboard end of the wing where the wing airfoil shape stops
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Aspect Ratio The ratio of the wing span to the average chord AR = b / c AR = b2 / S

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Suction

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LIFT

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Center of Pressure CP

25%
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Center of Pressure CP

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Center of Pressure CP

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CL is "Coefficient of Lift"

How efficient the shape is in extracting lift from the available dynamic pressure...

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CLMAX
2.4 2.2 2.0

1.8

CL

## 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

Critical Angle

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Angle of Attack

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CLvaries linearly with over a large range of . When = 0, still some lift is present (This is due to the positive camber of airfoil).

Therefore, all cambered airfoils are to be pitched to negative for zero lift. The value of when L=0 is called the zero-lift angle of attack.
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## High Lift Devices: Leading Edge Trailing Edge

LE FLAPS

LE SLATS

TE FLAPS
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Slats (retracted)

Aileron
Flaps (retracted) Rudder

Elevator
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The purpose of flight controls is to enable the aircraft to be rotated about its three axis.

Lateral Axis
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= PITCH

## Aileron: Control about the longitudinal axis

ROLL
Rudder: Control about the vertical axis

YAW
Elevator: Control about the lateral axis

## PITCH (Nose up/Nose down)

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Flaps: Gives extra lift. Reduces the landing speed. Located at the inboard of the wing. Spoilers: Decreases the wing lift. Usually flushed with the wing. In raised position, they greatly reduce wing lift by disturbing the smooth flow of air over the
wing surface.
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Spoilers may vary the total lift and control the glide angle, as they do on gliders, or on large commercial jets, they may be used to help the aileron control by "dumping" lift on one wing and thus help to roll the airplane. Also, on landing, with spoilers up, the lift is quickly destroyed and the airplane may quickly settle on its landing gear without bouncing.
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## References & Web Resources

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Anderson, J. D. Jr., (2000), Introduction to Flight, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill. Anderson, J. D. Jr., (1999), Aircraft Performance and Design, McGraw Hill. Shevell, R. S., (1989), Fundamentals of Flight, Pearson Education. Clancy, L. J., (1996), Aerodynamics, Himalayan Books. http://www.soton.ac.uk/~genesis http://www.howstuffworks.co http://www.pwc.ca/ http://rolls-royce.com http://www.ge.com/aircraftengines/ http://www.ae.gatech.edu http://www.ueet.nasa.gov/Engines101.html http://www.aero.hq.nasa.gov/edu/index.html http://home.swipnet.se/~w65189/transport_aircraft http://howthingswork.virginia.edu/ http://www2.janes.com/WW/www_results.jsp http://www.allison.com/ http://wings.ucdavis.edu/Book/Propulsion http://www.pilotfriend.com/ http://www.aerospaceweb.org/design/aerospike http://www.grc.nasa.gov http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History http://membres.lycos.fr/bailliez/aerospace/engine http://people.bath.ac.uk/en2jyhs/types.htm http://roger.ecn.purdue.edu/~propulsi/propulsion/rockets http://www.waynesthisandthat.com/ep2.htm http://www.answers.com/main http://www.astronautix.com

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

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