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Design of Pneumatic Controls Do It Right The First Time !

PNEUMATIK

The history of Pneumatics


APAKAH SISTEM PNEUMATIK
Dalam perkataan kuno Greek/Yunani.

Pneuma bererti udara atau nafas dan Aktik bermaksud action/pergerakan(motion)


In a simple sentence

Pneumatics means the movement of air

APAKAH SISTEM PNEUMATIK

Sistem pneumatik adalah : satu cara bagi menggerakkan , mengerjakan atau mengawal pergerakan dengan menggunakan udara / angin yang ditekan (compressed) dalam peralatan sistem pneumatik melalui saluran paip.

PENGENALAN
Sekarang penggunaan kuasa pneumatik amat meluas. Penggunaan yang meluas dalam industri.

Compressed Air
The

3rd Largest Energy Source Originates From The Atmosphere Used in Every Industry

Definition of Pneumatics
The use of compressed air in order to generate force that can produce mechanical movement
Penggunaan angin mampat untuk menghasilkan daya yang boleh digunakan untuk memperbolehkan pergerakan secara mekanikal

Applications of Pneumatics

Applications Packaging Feeding Transfer of materials Sorting Stacking Stamping and embossing Clamping Shifting Positioning

Sistem Pneumatik.
Robot Pneumatik.

Sistem Pneumatik

Conveying

Conveying

Actuators used in Pushing

Clamping

Punching, bending and sofa testing

Actuators used in Machining Forming

Actuators used in Testing and Quality Control

Actuators used in Machining - Drilling

Advantages

and
Disadvantages of

Compressed Air

Availability

Air is Practically Available Everywhere. It is Available in Unlimited Quantities.


Mudah diperolehi

Mengguna udara di mana udara adalah mudah didapati Dan percuma penggunaannya. dan tanpa batasan

Transport Penghantaran melalui paip

Air can be Easily Transported in Pipelines, even Over Large Distances

Storage Penyimpanan.

A Compressor Need Not Be in Continuous Operation. Compressed Air can be Stored in a Reservoir and Removed as Required. The Reservoir can be Transportable.

Temperature Suhu yang malar

Compressed Air is Relatively Insensitive to Temperature Fluctuations. This Ensures Reliable Operation, Even Under Extreme Conditions.

Tidak sensitif kepada suhu

Explosion Proof

Risiko rendah terhadap letupan

There is Minimal Risk of Explosion or Fire. No Expensive Protection Against Explosion is Required.

Cleanliness Bersih

Unlubricated Exhaust Air is Clean.


Any Unlubricated Contamination. Air Does Not Cause

Useful in Food, Wood and Textile Industries.

Components

Komponen ringkas and murah

Operating Components are of Simple Construction and Therefore Relatively Inexpensive.

Speed KELAJUAN

Compressed Air is a Very Fast Working Medium. High Working Speeds Can be Obtained.

Adjustable

PELARAS

With Compressed Air Components, Speeds and Forces are Infinitely Variable.

Overload Safe

Pneumatic Tools and Operating Components Can be Loaded to the Point of Stopping and Therefore Overload Safe.

Preparation

Compressed Preparation.

Air

Requires

Good

Dirt and Condensate Should Not be Present.

Compressible

It is Not Always Possible to Achieve Uniform and Constant Piston Speeds with Compressed Air.

Kelajuan cylinder yang lancar dan tidak dapat dihasilkan dengan angin mampat disebabkan oleh ciri angin yang berikut:kemampatan angin

Force Requirement

Compressed Air is Economical Only up to a Certain Force Requirement. At 6-7 bar, and Dependent on the Travel and Speed, the Output Limit is Between 20000 and 30000 Newtons.

Daya piston melebihi 30,000 Newton

Noise Level

The Exhaust Air is Loud. The Problem is Largely Solved with New Silencers.

Costs

Compressed Air is a Relatively Expensive Means of Conveying Power. The High Energy Costs are Partially Compensated by Inexpensive Components and Higher Performance.

Daya piston melebihi 30,000 Newton

UNIT ASAS PENGUKURAN


In a pneumatic system there are 2 main things that can be controlled:1) 2) Pressure (the force generated at the cylinder)

Flow rate (the speed of the cylinder)

UNIT ASAS PENGUKURAN


UNITS Pressure The units most widely used are. BAR 1 BAR = 1 Pascal = psi 14. 5 psi = 1 Newton 1 metre 2
?
PRESSURE = FORCE

AREA

Pascal 100 KPascal


?

Pressure : bar/pound per square inch (psi) /Pascal (Pa) (1 bar = 14.5 psi = 105/100,000 Pa/100kPa)

Components of a pneumatic system


Pneumatic elements
1 Energy supply
compressor receiver/air reservoir/air tank

service unit

sensors

Input elements

pushbutton limit switches

Processing element

directional control valve logic elements directional control valve

Final control element

Actuating devices

cylinders

Compressed Air Preparation


Design of an air generation plant
1. Compressor 3. Water and Oil Separator 2.Recooler 4. Reservoir 5. Dryer 6. Filter and pressure regulator

Compressed Air

Supply
Energy Supply
Electric Motor Diesel or Petrol Engine

Atmospheric Air Compressor Storage


Filter

Details

Air Quality Standard

Piston, Receiver

Vane,

Screw

Drying

Absorption, Refrigeration, Adsorption

Distribution
Service unit Plant

Air distribution system

Filter, Regulator, Lubricator

Result
Dirty Contaminated Air In the system Causing Pipework Contamination & Damage Blocking Valves and Machinery

PROBLEMs

Air Generation and Distribution

Air Compressor
Air is taken from the atmosphere and compressed using a COMPRESSOR

Pemampat
Memampatkan udara daripada tekanan atmosfera ke tekanan yang lebih tinggi

Compressor
Angin dari atmosfera dimampatkan dengan menggunakan Pemampat (Compressor) Angin dari atmosfera disedut dari udara sekeliling melalui motor dan angin dimampat oleh omboh bagi mendapat tekanan yang diperlukan

Compressors (Pemampat)
State and comparing types of air compression:

a. Reciprocal compressors (salingan): i. One level piston compressor and two levels piston compressor (omboh satu dan dua peringkat) ii. Diaphragm compressor (jenis gegendang)
b. Rotation compressors (putaran): i. Slide ram compressor (ram gelangsar) ii. Screw compressor (jenis skru)

Pemampat udara menggunakan motor elektrik untuk memampat udara.

Pemampat
Pemampat Salingan (Reciprocating) Menggunakan gerakan salingan omboh(piston) dalam silinder untuk memampatkan udara. Biasanya udara termampat dihasilkan melalui proses mampatan dalam satu peringkat atau dua peringkat Pemampat satu peringkat menghasilkan tekanan yang lebih rendah daripada pemampat dua peringkat.

Compressed air supply: Piston compressor


Pemampat Salingan dua peringkat

The piston compressor is widely used. Multi-stage compressors are required for compressing to high pressure. The drawn in air is compressed by the first piston, cooled and then compressed further by the next stage.

Cooler

Reciprocating Piston compressor

Diaphragm compressor
outlet inlet

diaphragm

It is the same as the piston but piston compressor is replaced with the installation disks and diaphragm. Diaphragm is connected to the disk and cylinder walls. Air in and out only in diaphragm area only.

Slide ram compressor

inlet

outlet

This compressor is a compact, high-speed, free from contamination lubricants and tend to have higher efficiency, but not as high efficiency reciprocating compressor. Rotary compressor can result in pressure between 400 kN / m - 800 kN / m. Ability can reach 100 m / min.

Screw Compressor

Pemampat Skru
outlet inlet

Two-axle Screw Compressor

outlet

inlet

filter motor

Screw-type compressors use lubricating oil as a protection from leakage. It can be used if the load applied to it does not change. The problem of screw-type compressor is compressed air produced with oil content, so they need the oil filter is installed in series is divided output.

Receiver/Pressure tank Compressed Air Receiver Tangki Penerima

Menyimpan tenaga angin

Reservoir /Pressure tank/ Air Tube


Tangki Penerima / Tabung udara
Tempat simpan udara/Penyimpanan sementara udara termampat. Menstabilkan/mengimbangi tekanan udara yang dibekalkan. Mengasingkan kotoran dan bendasing yang terbentuk. Pemeluwap yang terhasil akibat penurunan suhu dikeluarkan melalui injap silir.
Pressure relief valve (injap pelega tekanan)

outlet
inlet

Relief valve (injap pelepasan)

Menyejukkan udara supaya keluarkan kelembapan dan air boleh dikeluarkan di peringkat awal lagi.Sebab udara yang ditekan biasanya panas dan perlu disejukkan. Helps in keeping cost low by engaging the compressor when pressure level is low by means of a pressure switch.

pemampat angin akan ON and OFF dengan bantuan komponen berikut:Pressure switch

Pressure-relief valve

This tool is an air receiver installed at intermediate to soothe the changing pressure in the system and ensure that the operating pressure remains constant.