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Personality

Aim and Objectives


Introduce and understand the different personality theories

By the end of the lesson you will be able to:


Define personality Understand the difference between nature and nurture Describe the different personality theories
Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell) Social Learning Theories (Bandura) Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger)

Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling

Hollander Personality is a combination of all the characteristics that make a person unique

Esyneck

Personality refers to those relatively stable and enduring aspects of an individuals behaviour.

Defining Personality

the unique characteristics of an individual how people relate to each other how people act or react to deal with different situations
Task write down 5 statements about you beginning with I am Example: I am enthusiast (5 minutes)

Defining Personality
Do your answers describe up your personality? If youre not sure ask your friends and family Keep these answers with you through the lesson to see if any of the personality types we go through describe you! Why do we study personality? To see what makes people tick To control arousal levels To perform at an optimum level

Nature vs Nurture
Are we born with our characteristics? Can they be learnt or changed?

Trait theories believe personality is innate in our genes


Social learning theories believe we learn how to act or react from observing others Interactionist theories believe it is a bit of both we learn our behaviour from others but we have our own traits

TASK: Summarise the trait theory


If you had to explain to someone who doesnt know anything about personality and PE as a subject

How would you explain the trait (nature) theory? (3 minutes bullet points/ a few sentences)
Trait theories see personality as being innate (we are born with) and that it is stable and predictable in all situations. This means we can predict how people will act and react

Trait Theory
why we act the way we do
Traits are underlying, long lasting behaviours

Main ideas
People cant help the way they act

We are all born with a number of traits (Cattell identified 171 traits filtered down to 16). Personality doesnt change

Environment and the situation dont effect personality

Eysencks Trait Theory (1968)


Everyone can be placed anywhere along two dimensions:

Introversion Extroversion

Stable Unstable

A third dimension was later added: Psychotic Introverts passive, quiet, and unsociable Extroverts sociable, outgoing and active

Emotional stability calm, even-tempered.


Emotional instability moody, anxious and rigid

How would you describe an introvert


Introverts are: - more easily aroused than extroverts - more likely to obey orders - are liable to be restrained - prefer working alone Extroverts prefer working in groups

Trait Theories
Eysneck Personality Dimensions (Trait Approach)
My results http://similarminds.com/eysenck.html Extroversion results were very high which suggests you are overly talkative, outgoing, sociable and interacting at the expense too often of developing your own individual interests and internally based identity. Neuroticism results were moderately low which suggests you are relaxed, calm, secure, and optimistic. Psychoticism results were very low which suggests you are overly kind natured, trusting, and helpful at the expense too often of your own individual development (martyr complex).

My Personality Traits

Cattells Trait Theory (1965)


According to Cattell, a hierarchy of personality traits Source traits at the top (most important)
behaviours that do vary and are most likely to be displayed.

Surface traits
behaviours displayed with different intensity and regularity

16 primary traits and developed a questionnaire (Cattell 16PF questionnaire) see homework

Trait Theories
Cattell 16 personality factors Need more than 3 dimensions 16 personality factors Gives personality profile

Answers influenced by mood, motivation and situational factors

Type A / Type B personalities


This theory is based upon how people deal with stress.

Sometimes called the Narrow Band Approach (Girdana et al, 1990)


Type A personalities include: - a strong desire to succeed - high levels of alertness - work at a fast pace - find it hard to delegate - need to be in control - experience high levels of stress.

Type A / Type B personalities


Type B personalities include: - be more relaxed - delegate easily - be less competitive - be tolerant - experience lower levels of stress

Social Learning Theory


Main theorist was Albert Bandura (1977) He argued: - People behave differently in different situations
- Personality is learned

- There are different ways of learning personality:

How would you explain the social learning theory? Give examples (3 minutes)

Social Learning Theory


Observational Learning Learning of behaviours by simply watching others. Also known as modelling Vicarious Conditioning Learning of a response by watching someone else. The learning is particularly influenced by whether the observed person receives reinforcement (rewarded) or punishment

Banduras Model of Observational Learning


The model has 4 stages:
1) Attention Processes what to look for in the models performance

2)
3) 4)

Retention Processes how to remember the models performance


Motor Reproduction how to copy the models performance Motivational Processes the reason why a person would want to copy the models performance

Interactionist Theory of Personality


Interactionists believe B= f (P,E)

What does this mean? Behaviour as a function of personality traits and environmental conditions

This can be seen as a combination of the best bits of Trait Theory and Social Learning Theory

Interactionist Theory
traits determine behaviour but can be modified by situations traits situations behaviour
The Situation

THE PERSON (PERSONALITY)

Lewin behaviour is a function of both the person or personality (P) and the environment (E)
B = f(P,E)

Behaviour

Measuring Personality
INTERVIEWS before or after the event not directly related to performance open ended and flexible transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the interviewer

Measuring Personality
QUESTIONNAIRES before or after the event not directly related to performance rigidly and systematically set out transient feelings or attitudes may be expressed able to quantify accurately would not be influenced by another can be used to assess specific traits

Measuring Personality
OBSERVATION

made during an actual event directly related to performance varies according to the competitive nature of the event difficult to quantify accurately may be influenced by the observers views and attitudes

Profile of Mood States (POMS)


MOODS are an important aspect of personality which may influence sports performance tension depression anger vigour fatigue confusion

Profile of Mood States (POMS)


Elite sportspeople show LOW tension depression fatigue confusion and HIGH vigour Unsuccessful sportspeople show HIGH tension depression fatigue confusion and LOW vigour

Three main theories: How are personalities formed?


(1) Trait Theory personality is heredity and is passed on through genetics (2) Social Learning Theory personality is learned through environmental influences (3) Interactionist Theory personality is a combination of genetic and environmental influences.

Trait Theories
Type A or Type B Personalities Type A personality, means that you are a fast-paced individual who is always on the run. More easily stressed, who does not accept failure easily, and expects the most in others.

Type B personality is exactly the opposite of a Type A.


More reserved and calm, not easily bothered by small problems in life.

Social Learning Theory


The main difference between trait theory and social learning theory is the importance of the environment Will people act or react differently in different situations?

What have we learnt about today?


You should now be able to Define personality Understand the difference between nature and nurture Describe the different personality theories
Trait Theories (Hollander, Esyneck, Cattell) Social Learning Theories (Bandura) Interationist Theories (Lewin, Festinger)

Explain the effects of personality tests and profiling