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Abbas El Subai Medical University Of Lodz

Malaria In Sudan

Whats Malaria & Wheres The Sudan

The Sudan
Northeast africa About one-fourth the size of the USA. The Red Sea washes about 500 mi of the eastern coast. Transversed from south to north by the River Nile.

Neighboring Countries

The Sudanese Flag

Khartoum

Khartoum @ Night

Government

Sudan Demography Profile 2013


Population: 25,946,220 Population growth rate: 1.88% (2012 est.) Infant mortality rate: 55.6 deaths/1,000 live births.

Males National Dress

Who Is He?

Females National Dress

Sudan Beauty

Food
Sudanese people are very hospitable. Meals are eaten around a large, communal tray on which various meat, vegetable, salad, and sauce dishes are placed. Soup is very important. These are eaten with the right hand, using flat bread or a stiff millet porridge known as asida or kisra. Sometime spoons are used when bread is replaced with rice.

Food Cont
Egyptian peans, known as Ful-Mussri is the major dish in either breakfast or dinner. Peanuts, known as Ful-Sudani, are a popular snack, and can be made into delicious macaroons.

Take It Easy Bro

Drinks
The strong Sudanese coffee is served from a special tin jug with a long spout, known as a jebena. The coffee is sweet and often spiced with ginger or cinnamon, and is drunk from tiny cups or glasses. Fruit teas and herbal teas such as karkaday (hibiscus tea) are also popular.

Ethnicity
Sudanese Ethnic groups: Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata. Religions: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority. Languages: Arabic (official), English, Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur.

Major Infectious Diseases

degree of risk: very high:


Food

or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever. Vector borne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) Water contact disease: schistosomiasis. Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis . animal contact disease: rabies.

Whats Malaria?
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a type of unicellular microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. Commonly, the disease is transmitted via a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito, which introduces the organisms from its saliva into the person's circulatory system. In the blood, the protists travel to the liver to mature and reproduce.

Types Of Plasmodium
Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. The vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, while P. ovale, and P. malariae cause a generally milder form of malaria that is rarely fatal. The zoonotic species P. knowlesi, prevalent in Southeast Asia, causes malaria in macaques but can also cause severe infections in humans.

Data From 2002


Malaria incident in sudan was est about 9 million episodes. Death due to malaria was about 44,000

Strategies for Preventing Malaria


Use of insecticide-treatment mosquito nets (ITN). Indor residual sprays (IRS)

Romantic Bed Nets

Symptoms & Signs


flulikE illness with fever Chills Malagia Headache nausea vomiting cough Diarrhea Jaundice of the skin and whites of the eyes due to destruction of red blood cells and liver cells. People with severe P. falciparum malaria can develop bleeding problems, shock, liver or kidney failure, central nervous system problems, coma, and can die from the infection or its complications. Cerebral malaria can occur with severe P. falciparum infection. It is lethal if not treated quickly; even with treatment, about 15%20% die.

Diagnosis
Travel history Blood smear on a microscope slide. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTS). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests.

Treatment Of Malaria
Three main factors determine treatments: the infecting species of Plasmodium parasite, the clinical situation of the patient (for example, adult, child, or pregnant female with either mild or severe malaria), and the drug susceptibility of the infecting parasites.

Treatment Cont
Drug treatment of malaria is not always easy. Chloroquine phosphate is the drug of choice for all malarial parasites except for chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains. Multiple drug-treatment protocols for treatment of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains (for example, quinine sulfate + doxycycline or tetracycline, or clindamycin or atovaquoneproguan.

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