Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 45

NEBOSH International General Certificate

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 1 860409

Licence details
RMS Publishing Limited Victoria House, Lower High Street, Stourbridge DY8 1TA ACT Associates Limited. First Edition September 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this presentation may be stored in a retrieval system, reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the Publishers. This presentation may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form other than that in which it is published, without the prior consent of the Publishers. This presentation may not be reproduced in any form without prior consent of the Publishers other than a single copy thumbnail handout for immediate use by the tutor. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the information contained herein, RMS/ACT can bear no liability for any omission or error.

Issued to: Strabag Single Licence Licence No: 860409

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 2 860409

NEBOSH International General Certificate


Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 3 860409

Unit IGC2 Control of International workplace hazards


Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 4 860409

Element 4 Electrical - hazards and control


Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 5 860409

Electrical hazards and control

Learning outcomes
4.1 Identify the hazards and evaluate the consequential risks from the use of electricity in the workplace Describe the control measures that should be taken when working with electrical systems or using electrical equipment

4.2

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 6 860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1 4.2 Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 7 860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1 4.2 Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 8 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
If misused can be very dangerous and often fatal Has a major danger Sight, hearing and smell will not detect electricity Contact with exposed conductors 240V can be lethal Number of electrical notifiable accidents is small 10-20 reported fatalities each year so severity is high Accident often caused by complacency not ignorance

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 9 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
Basic circuitry Current - flow of electrons through a conductor Current flows due to differences in electrical pressure Differences are measured in volts Direct current (DC) Alternating current (AC) Resistance, inductance or capacitance Impedance measured in ohms

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 10 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
A basic electrical circuit

Source: RMS Publishing

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 11 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
Relationship between voltage, current and resistance Electrical pressure = Volts (V) Current = Amperes or Milliamperes (I) Resistance = OHMS (R) V=IxR

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 12 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
An electric circuit under fault conditions showing resistances in the path of a fault current

Source: R. Gilmour.

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 13 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Principles of electricity
Relationship between voltage, current and resistance By Ohms law; Current = Voltage Resistance

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 14 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Hazards of electricity
Shock Electrical burns Electrical fires Explosions Secondary injuries

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 15 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effects on the body


Effects of current flowing in the human body
CURRENT (mA) LENGTH OF TIME LIKELY EFECTS

0-1
1-15 15-30 30-50

Not critical
Not critical Minutes Seconds to minutes

Threshold of feeling. Undetected by person.


Threshold of cramp. Independent loosening of the hands no longer possible. Cramp-like pulling together of the arms, breathing difficult. Limit of tolerance. Strong cramp like effects, loss of consciousness due to restricted breathing. Longer time may lead to fibrillation. No fibrillation. Strong shock effects. Fibrillation. Loss of consciousness. Burn marks. Fibrillation. Loss of consciousness. Burn marks.
Source: RMS Publishing

50-500

Less than one heart period (750 mS) Greater period than one heart

Over 500

Less than one heart period

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 16 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


Factors influencing severity Voltage Frequency Duration Resistance Current path

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 17 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock In case of electrical shock: Do Switch off or remove the plug No remaining connection to the supply Assess the situation Call for qualified support If safe, check the casualtys response

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 18 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock In case of electrical shock: Check A - Airway Is it open? B - Breathing Is the casualty breathing normally? C - Circulation Does the casualty have a normal pulse?

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 19 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock In case of electrical shock: Action CPR Recovery position Keep the casualty under observation

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 20 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electric shock and its effect on the body


First aid treatment for electric shock In case of electrical shock: Do not Do not go near the casualty until the electricity supply is proven to be off Do not delay Do not wait

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 21 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electrical burns
Direct Electricity passing through the body Burns to the skin and tissue Indirect Short circuit contacts Hot parts Molten materials Fire

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 22 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Electrical fires
Common causes Wiring with defects such as insulation failure Overheating of cables Incorrect fuse rating Poor connections

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 23 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Portable electric equipment


Conditions and practices likely to lead to accidents Unsuitable equipment Inadequate maintenance Use of defective apparatus

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 24 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work

Secondary hazards
Injury results from the flow of electricity through the bodys nerves, muscles and organs and causes abnormal function to occur Muscular spasm may be severe Injuries may result from dislocation, impact with surrounding objects or fall from a height A tool may be dropped causing such injuries as burns or impact injury to the user or others near by

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 25 860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1 4.2 Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 26 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Selection and suitability of equipment


It is critical to ensure that all electrical equipment is suitable Many tools are designed and provided for use in a domestic situation and they may not be suitable for use in the more arduous conditions of a construction site Part of the selection process is to determine situations where low voltage, such as 110 volt systems, can be used in preference to 240 volts

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 27 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Fuse Wire melts = current breaks Protects equipment not user Fuse ratings may be wrong Fuse rating calculation Current (Amperes) = Power (watts) Voltage (volts)

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 28 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Earthing Conductor connected to earth Earth is lowest point of potential Connected to equipment casing

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 29 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Isolation Excellent way of achieving safety for those that need to work on or near the system Can mean switching off and unplugging a portable appliance at times it is not in use Check that the isolation has been adequate and effective before work starts - tests on the system Ensure the isolation is secure - lock off and tag out systems

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 30 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Reduced low voltage systems Step down transformer (110v) Centre tap to earth (55v shock) Reduces effect of electric shock Portable

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 31 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Residual Current Device (RCD) Detects system current leaks Response = 30mA and 30mS Reduces effect of electric shock Protects the user Fixed or portable Built in test facility

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 32 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Advantages and limitations of protective systems


Double insulation 2nd protective insulated layer Not normally used with earth

Source: HSG107

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 33 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


User checks Formal inspection and tests Frequency of inspection and testing Records of inspection and testing Advantages and limitations of Portable Appliance Testing (PAT)

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 34 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


User checks Damaged cable sheaths Damaged plugs; cracked casing or bent pins Taped or other inadequate cable joints Outer cable insulation not secured into plugs or equipment Faulty of ineffective switches Burn marks or discolouration Damaged casing Loose parts or screws Wet or contaminated equipment Loose or damaged sockets or switches
Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 35 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Formal inspection and tests Portable equipment check: Use of correctly rated fuse Effective cord grip Secure and correct cable terminations

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 36 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Formal inspection and tests Fixed installations check: Damaged or loose conduit, trunking or cabling Missing, broken or inadequately secured covers Loose or faulty joints Loose earth connections Moisture, corrosion or contamination Burn marks or discolourisation Open or inadequately secured panel doors Ease of access to switches and isolators Presence of temporary writing
Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 37 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Frequency of inspection and testing Deciding the frequency Factors: Type of equipment Whether its hand held Manufacturers recommendations Its initial integrity and soundness Age Working environment Likelihood of mechanical damage
Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 38 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Frequency of inspection and testing Deciding the frequency (continued) Factors: Frequency of use Duration of use Foreseeable use Who uses it Modifications or repairs Past experience

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 39 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Records of inspection and testing Use a checklist recording that the appropriate checks inspections and tests have been done Common practice to add a label to the system or part of the system to indicate that an inspection has taken place Personal electrical devices should be treated and tested as if it were company property

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 40 860409

Electrical hazards and control


Control measures

Inspection and maintenance strategies


Advantages and limitations of Portable Appliance Testing (PAT) The first level of inspection would be carried out by the operator before the appliance is used Second check would be supplemented by a more formal visual inspection by an appointed person Third strategy would include the periodic combined inspection and testing of the appliance by a competent person

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 41 860409

Electrical hazards and control

Contents of element
4.1 4.2 Hazards and risks associated with electricity at work Control measures

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 42 860409

Element 4 Electrical - hazards and control


Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 43 860409

Unit IGC2 Control of International workplace hazards


Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 44 860409

NEBOSH International General Certificate


Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC2 Element 4 - v.1.0 - Slide 45 860409