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10/23/2013 1

MAE 2312
Torsion
(5.1-5.5)
Main Rotor to tail rotor drive shaft
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Bell 222B
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HC-4 Black Stallion
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Torsion Modeling
Circular Bars
Prismatic Bar
Identical cross section along length
Subject to pure Torsion
Constant Torque at every section
Torsion theory of circular bars
Charles A. Coulomb (1736-1806)
General Theory of Torsion
Barr de Saint-Vnant (1797-1886)


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Torsion Modeling
Implication of circular bars subject to pure
torsion
Cross section remain plane
Straight radii
No warping
Small twist angle
Same Length
Same cross section radius
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Sign convention
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u
|

|
r
dx
d
r
dx rd
max
max
= =
=
u
|
= =
dx
d
twist of rate
dx
d
= =
|
u
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twist of rate
dx
d
= =
|
u
L
d dx
0
L x
0 x
|
u
| u
|
|
=
}
=
}
=
=
=
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u
|

|
r
dx
d
r
dx rd
max
max
= =
=
u
|
= =
dx
d

|
u
|
u
1
2
max
1 1
2 2 max
r
r
L
r r
L
r r
=
= =
= =
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u t
u
|

G G
dx
d
= =
= =
Direction of Shear
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Longitudinal shear associated with transverse shear stress
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p
max
2
p
p
2
I
r
T
dA I
I G dA G dA T
t

u u t
=
}
=
}
=
}
= =
max
r
G G
dx
d
t

t
u t
u
|

=
= =
= =
p
max
I
Tr
= t
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Summary
T L
p
T
p
p
f
GI
k
GI
TL
L
GI T
1
= =
= =
=
u |
u
p
max
I
T
r

t

t
u
= =
=
( ) ( )
( ) 2 d d d r r t
t d
4
t d
r r
2
I
2 1 1 2
2 2 4
1
4
2 p
/ + = =
+ = =
t t
t
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Torsion
Design
Account for all possible modes of failure
Thickness of tube governed by wrinkling
Specified max. value for
|
.
|

\
|
t
r
2
Limitations
Circular cross sections
Noncircular will warp
Max. Shear stress not located at farthest distances
from midpoints
Linearly elastic material
Away from stress concentrations
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Problem
in 2 . 1 r
psi 6300
in 5 . 5 b
lb 900 P
1
all
=
=
=
=
t
Determine r
2
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2001 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning

is a trademark used herein under license.


Problem
2
9
2
6
all
o
all
m
N
10 75 GPa 75 G
m
N
10 60 MPa 60
rad
180
3
3
m 8 . 0 mm 800 L
= =
= =

= =
= =
t
t
|
For what range of the
applied Torque T does the
shear stress determine the
required diameter d? For
what range of values does
the angle of twist
determine the diameter?