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# Equation solvers

## Matlab Free versions / open source codes:

Scilab http://www.scilab.org/
MathCad: Mathematica: http://www.wolfram.com/mathematica/ LabView: http://www.ni.com/labview/ EES: http://www.fchart.com/ees/ Modelica: https://www.modelica.org/ .

Lecture Objectives:
Discuss the final project assignment Finnish with Review of HVAC systems
Air-conditioning in Air Handling Units (AHU) Refrigeration cycles

Building-System-Plant connection

Final project
Today and on Monday Extended office hours for project topic and objective discussion After that you will prepare more detailed project proposal (1 2 pages) with
- Project objective - Methodology - Expected results Any schematic drawing is welcome

## Topics related to the Commercial Buildings

1) Optimization of building envelops glass area ,shading,. 2) Effect of internal loads on energy consumption .................. Systems 1) Impact of HVAC systems 2) Design of solar system (PV or hot water) .. Life cycle cost analysis in each project

Detailed analysis!

## Example of HVAC: water cooled chiller

Chiller Cooling tower

Water 120F

Water 52F

Building

## Outside air 95F

Water 100F Water 42F

Inside 75F

Task: analyze COP for the whole year and different locations

## Example of HVAC thermal storage systems

(in combination with a cooling machine / heat pump)

Summer

Winter

In the summer, the earth acts as a cooling tower. The Cooling Machine loads the loop with heat, sending warmed water to be cooled by the earth

In the winter, the earth acts as the boiler. The Heat Pump extracts heat from the loop, sending cooled water to be warmed by the earth.

Residential buildings
It is very expensive to optimize each residential building We optimize example buildings to develop local codes

## Modeling for optimization of Home Research Lab (PSP)

Heat recovery systems, Attic problem, Mass transfer (moisture,) Vented cavity walls - exam problem Green roof model

Project Timeline
11/12/12 - project defined and approved 11/20/12 - generated model 11/29/12 - report the preliminary results 12/04/12 - oral presentations 12/06/16 - project paper submission

GRADING CRITERIA (30% of your final grade): 1) Analysis approach: 60% - Modeling quality 20% - Result accuracy 20% - Result analysis 20% 2) Deliverables: 40% - Quality of the final report 25% - Quality of oral presentations 10% - Submission timeline 5%

Engineering report

Research report

Building-System-Plant
HVAC System (AHU and distribution systems)

Building

## Building HVAC Systems

(Primary and Secondary Building Systems)
AHU Air Handling Unit

## Fresh air For ventilation Primary systems

AHU

Distribution systems

Air transport

Electricity Secondary systems Heating (boilers) Building envelope HVAC systems affect the energy efficiency of the building as much as the building envelope

Cooling (chiller)

(or Gas)

Gas

AHU
fresh air

## Roof top AHU

mixing filter

AHU schematic
Exhaust From room Return fan

Supply fan

## Fresh air Outdoor air

To room

Gas/Electric Heater

cool water

hot water

## Case for Summer in Austin MA IA SA

OA

Refrigeration Cycle
Released energy (condenser)

T outdoor air

T cooled water

- What is COP? - How the outdoor air temperature affects chiller performance?

## Integration of HVAC and building physics models

Load System Plant model Qbuiolding Building Heating/Cooling System Q Plant

## including Ventilation and Dehumidification

Integrated models

Building

Heating/Cooling System

Plant

## Example of System Models:

Schematic of simple air handling unit (AHU)
Tf,inTf,ou t
Mixing box

QC

QH
mS TS wS room TR wR

(1-r)mS TO wO

mS

TM wM
rmS

fans

cooler

heater

TR wR

Qroom_sensibel Qroom_latent

m - mass flow rate [kg/s], T temperature [C], w [kgmoist/kgdry air], r - recirculation rate [-], Q energy/time [W]

Energy and mass balance equations for Air handling unit model steady state case
The energy balance for the room is given as:

Qroom_ sensible mS c p TR TS

mS is the supply air mass flow rate cp - specific capacity for air, TR is the room temperature, TS is the supply air temperature.

## Qroom_ latent mS wR wS i phase_ change

The energy balance for the mixing box is:

## wR and wS are room and supply humidity ratio

i phase_ change - energy for phase change of water into vapor

TM (1 r ) TO r TR

r is the re-circulated air portion, TO is the outdoor air temperature, TM is the temperature of the air after the mixing box.

## The air-humidity balance for the mixing box is:

wM (1 r ) wO r wR

wO is the outdoor air humidity ratio and wM is the humidity ratio after the mixing box

## The energy balance for the heating coil is given as:

QHeating mS c p (TS TM )
The energy balance for the cooling coil is given as:

## Non-air system Radiant panel heat transfer model

ti on c e Tsurface nv co

## radiant panel layer (water tube)

Tw_in

Tzone_air
Ro om (zone 1)
m s ,Ts = const. air supply system

Tsurounding

Qzone

## Non-air system Radiant panel heat transfer model

The total cooling/heating load in the room

## Qzone Qrad _ pan Qair

Qair (mc p ) sup ply _ air (Tsup ply _ air Troom _ air )