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Ergonomics

DR. SITI ZAWIAH MD. DAWAL


DEPT. OF ENGINEERING DESIGN
AND MANUFACTURE
UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA
Introduction

 Human hand is able to


perform a large variety of
activities ranging from those
that require fine control to
others that demand large
forces.
Hand tasks can be divided:

 Fine manipulation of objects with little


displacement and forces.
 Fast movements toward the object,
requiring moderately accuracy to reach
the target but a fairly small exertion of
force.
 Forceful activities with little or
moderate displacement
 Forceful activities with large
displacements
Designing Hand
Tools
Fit the Tool

 Hand tools need to fit the


contours of hand
 Hand tools need to held securely
with straight wrist and suitable
arm postures
 Hand tools must utilize strength
and energy capabilities without
overloading the body.
Many methods of gripping
Power Grip

 Force parallel to forearm


 Force at an angle of forearm
 Force acting on a moment arm
 Grip is used for force or holding heavy
product
Pinch Grip

 Tools is held between the distal ends of


one or more fingers
 4 types:
- Lateral pinch
- Pulp pinches
- Palm pinch
- Finger press
Avoid Tissue Compression
Handle Design
Oblique thrust line
Formfitting
Grip Strength Capability
Pulp Pinch Strength
Capability
Proper orientation of
power tools in workplace